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Book of Husbandry, 


Reprinted from the Edition of 1534, 

and edited 













Introduction „ — vii 

The Author's Prologue i 

The Table (which see) 3 

The Book of Husbandry 9 

Notes _ 127 

Glossarial Index „ 149 


ONE question of chief interest respecting the volume here 
printed is — who was the author? We know that his name 
was "Mayster Fitzherbarde " (see p. 125), and the question 
that has to be settled is simply this — may we identify him 
with Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, judge of the Common Pleas, 
the author of the Grand Abridgment of the Common Law, 
the New Natura Brevium, and other legal works ? 

The question has been frequently discussed, and, as far as 
I have been able to discover, the more usual verdict of the 
critics is in favour of the supposed identity ; and certainly all 
the evidence tends very strongly in that direction, as will, I 
think, presently appear. 

Indeed, when we come to investigate the grounds on which 
the objections to the usually received theory rest, they appear 
to be exceedingly trivial ; nor have I been very successful 
in discovering the opposers' arguments. Bohn's edition of 
Lowndes' Bibliographer's Manual merely tells us that " the 
treatises on Husbandry and Surveying are by some attributed 
to the famous lawyer Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, by others to 
his brother John Fitzherbert." 

In the Catalogue of the Huth Library, we find this note : 
" The Rev. Joseph Hunter was the first person to point out 
that the author of this work [Fitzherbert's Husbandry] and 
the book on Surveying was a different person from the judge 
of the same name." It will be at once observed that this 

viii Introduction. 

note is practically worthless, from the absence of the refer- 
ence. After considerable search, I have been unable to 
discover where Hunter's statement is to be found, so that the 
nature of his objections can only be guessed at. 

In Walter Harte's Essays on Husbandry (ii. Jj) we read 
— " How Fitzherbert could be a practitioner of the art of 
agriculture for 40 years, as he himself says in 1534, is pretty 
extraordinary. I suppose it was his country amusement in 
the periodical recesses between the terms." We are here 
presented with a definite objection, grounded, as is alleged, 
upon the author's own words ; and it is most probable that 
Harte is here stating the objection which has weighed most 
strongly with those who (like Hunter) have objected to the 
current opinion. The answer to the objection is, I think, 
not a little remarkable, viz. that the alleged statement is not 
the author's at all. By turning to p. 125, it will be seen that 
it was Thomas Berthelet the printer who said that the author 
"had exercysed husbandry, with greate experyence, xl. years." 
But the author's own statement, on p. 124, is differently 
worded ; and the difference is material. He says : " and, as 
touchynge the poyntes of husbandry, and of other artycles 
conteyned in this present boke, I wyll not saye that it is the 
beste waye and wyll serue beste in all places, but I saye it 
is the best way that euer I coude proue by experyence, the 
whiche haue ben an housJwlder this xl. yeres and more, and 
haue assaied many and dyuers wayes, and done my dyligence 
to proue by experyence which shuld be the beste waye." The 
more we weigh these words, the more we see a divergence 
between them and the construction which might readily be 
put upon the words of Berthelet ; a construction which, in all 
probability, Berthelet did not specially intend. Any reader 
who hastily glances at Berthelet's statement would probably 
deduce from it that the author was a farmer merely, who had 

Introduction. ix 

had forty years' experience in farming. But this" is not what 
we should deduce from the more careful statement of the 
author. We should rather notice these points. 

1. The author does not speak of husbandry only, but of 
otlier points. The other points are the breeding of horses 
(not a necessary part of a farmer's business), the selling of 
wood and timber, grafting of trees, a long discourse upon 
prodigality, remarks upon gaming, a discussion of "what is 
riches," and a treatise upon practical religion, illustrated by 
Latin quotations from the fathers, and occupying no small 
portion of the work. This is not the work of a practical 
farmer, in the narrow acceptation of the term, meaning 
thereby one who farms to live ; but it is clearly the work of 
a country gentleman, rich in horses and in timber, acquainted 
with the extravagant mode of life often adopted by the 
wealthy, and at the same time given to scholarly pursuits 
and to learned and devout reading. Indeed, the promi- 
nence given to religious teaching can hardly fail to surprise 
a reader who expects to find in the volume nothing more 
than hints upon practical agriculture. One chapter has a 
very suggestive heading, viz. " A lesson made in Englysshe 
verses, that a gentylmans seruaunte shall forget none of his 
gere in his inne behynde hym " (p. 7). This is obviously the 
composition of a gentleman himself, and of one accustomed 
to take long journeys upon horseback, and to stay at various 
inns on the way. 1 

2. Again he says, " it is the best way that euer I coude 
proue by experyence, the whiche . . . haue assaied many 
and dyuers wayes, and done my dyligence to proue by 
experyence which shuld be the beste waye." Certainly this 
is not the language of one who farmed for profit, but of 

1 " And [I give] to euery of my seruentes that be used to Ryde with me," etc. ; 
Sir A. Fitzherbert's Will, quoted below at p. xviii. 

x Introduction. 

the experimental farmer, the man who could afford to lose if 
things went wrong, one to whom farming was an amusement 
and a recreation, and who delighted in trying various modes 
that he might benefit those who, unlike himself, could not 
afford to try any way but that which had long been known. 

3. We must note the language in which he describes him- 
self. He does not say that he had " exercised husbandry " 
for forty years, but that he had " been a householder " during 
that period. The two things are widely different. His know- 
ledge of agriculture was, so to speak, accidental ; his real 
employment had been to manage a household, or, as we 
should rather now say, to " keep house." This, again, natu- 
rally assigns to him the status of a country gentleman, who 
chose to superintend everything for himself, and to gain a 
practical acquaintance with everything upon his estate, viz. 
his lands, his cattle, his horses, his bees, his trees, his felled 
timber, and the rest ; not forgetting his duties as a man of 
rank in setting a good example, discouraging waste, giving 
attention to prayer and almsgiving, and to his necessary 
studies. " He that can rede and vnderstande latyne, let hym 
take his booke in his hande, and looke stedfastely vppon the 
same thynge that he readeth and seeth, that is no trouble to 
hym" etc. (p. 115). Are we to suppose that it could be said 
generally, of farmers in the time of Henry VIII., that Latin 
was " no trouble to them " ? If so, things must have greatly 

I have spoken of the above matter at some length, because 
I much suspect that the words used by Berthelet are the very 
words which have biassed, entirely in the wrong direction, 
the minds of such critics as have found a difficulty where 
little exists. It ought to be particularly borne in mind that 
Berthelet's expression, though likely to mislead now, was not 
calculated to do so at the time, when the authorship of the 

Introduction. xi 

book was doubtless well known. And we shall see presently 
that Berthelet himself entirely believed Sir Anthony to have 
been the author of this Book on Husbandry. 

Another objection that has been raised is founded upon the 
apparent strangeness of the title " Mayster Fitz-herbarde," as 
applied to a judge. The answer is most direct and explicit, 
viz. that the printer who uses this title did so wittingly, for 
he is tJie very man who helps us to identify our author with 
the great lawyer. It is therefore simply impossible that he 
could have seen any incongruity in it, and any objection 
founded upon it must be wholly futile. The title of master 
was used in those days very differently to what it is now. 
Foxe, in his Actes and Monuments, ed. 1583, p. 1770, tells us 
how " maister Latymer " encouraged " maister Ridley," when 
both were at the stake ; and, chancing to open Holinshed's 
History (ed. 1808, iii. 754), I find a discourse between Wolsey 
and Sir William Kingston, Constable of the Tower, in which 
the latter is called " master Kingston " throughout. 

I cannot find that there is any reason for assigning the 
composition of the Book of Husbandry to John Fitzherbert, 
Sir Anthony's brother. It is a mere guess, founded only 
upon the knowledge that Sir Anthony had such a brother. It 
looks as though the critics who wish to deprive Sir Anthony 
of the honour of the authorship think they must concede 
somewhat, and therefore suggest his brother's name by way 
of compensation. 

We have no proof that John Fitzherbert ever wrote any- 
thing, whilst Sir Anthony was a well-known author. All 
experience shows that a man who writes one book is likely 
to write another. 

When we leave these vague surmises and come to consider 
the direct evidence, nearly all difficulties cease. And first, as 
to external evidence. 

xii Introduction. 

The author of the Book of Husbandry was also author of 
the Book of Surveying, as has always been seen and acknow- 
ledged. 1 The first piece of distinct evidence on the subject 
is the statement of Thomas Berthelet. He prefixed some 
verses to Pynson's edition of the Book of Surveying (1523), 
addressing the reader as follows : 

" This worthy man / nobly hath done his payne 

I meane hym / that these sayde bokes 2 dyd deuyse. 

He sheweth to husbandes / in right fruteful vvyse 

The manyfolde good thynges / in brefe sentence 

Whiche he hath well proued / by long experyence. 
IT And this 3 I leaue hym / in his good wyll and mynde 

That he beareth / vnto the publyke weale. 

Wolde god noblemen / coude in their hertes fynde 

After such forme j for the comons helth to deale ; 

It is a true token / of hyghe loue and zeale 

Whan he so delyteth / and taketh pleasure 

By his busy labour / mens welth to procure. " 

This cannot well be mistaken. It is obvious that Berthelet 
believed the author to be a nobleman, one who " shewed 
things to husbands " which he had gained by his own " long 
experience ; " one who wrote out of the " good will and mind 
that he bare unto the public weal," thereby proving his 
'* high love and zeal," in that he delighted " to procure men's 
wealth," i.e. the welfare of others, not his own riches, by 
means of his " busy labour." We hence conclude that Ber- 
thelet knew perfectly well who the author was ; and indeed 
it would have been strange if he did not, since he was 
writing in 1523 (while the author was still alive), and subse- 
quently printed both the books of which he is here speaking. 
He plainly tells us that the author was a nobleman, and 
merely wrote to benefit others out of pure love and zeal. 

1 " Of late by experience I contriued, compyled, and made a Treatyse, . . . and 
callyd it the booke of husbandrye ; " Prol. to Book of Surveying. 

2 I.e. the Books on Husbandry and Surveying. 

3 Read thus. 

Introduction. xiii 

But this is not Berthelet's only allusion to these books. In 
an edition of the Book of Surveying, printed by Berthelet, 1 
there are some remarks by him at the back of the title-page 
to the following effect. " To the reder. Whan I had printed 
the boke longyng to a Justice of the peace, togither with 
other small bokes very necessary, I bethought me vpon this 
boke of Surueyenge, compyled sometyme by master Fitz- 
herbarde, how good and howe profytable it is for all states, 
that be lordes and possessioners of landes, .... or tenauntes 
of the same, .... also how well it agreeth with the argumewt 
of the other small bokes, as court-baron, court-hundred, and 
chartuary, I went in hande and printed it in the same 
volume that the other be, to binde them al-togither. And 
haue amended it in many places." 

The mention of " the boke longyng to a Justice of the 
peace" is interesting, as bringing us back again to Sir Anthony 
Fitzherbert. "In 1538," says Mr. Wall is, 2 "Robert Redman 
printed " The newe Boke of Justices of the Peas, by A. F. K. 
[Anthony Fitzherbert, Knight], lately translated out of French 
into English, In the yere of our Lord God, M.D.xxxviii. 
The 29 day of December, Cum priuilegio." 3 Mr. Hobson's 
list (Hist. Ashborne, p. 234) mentions this as " the first work 
on the subject ever printed," but this is not the case. 
Wynkyn de Worde and Copland both printed, as early as 
1515, "The Boke of Justices of the Peas, the charge, with al 

1 The date is 1539; the words here quoted appear also in Berthelet's edition 
of 1546. 

2 I am quoting from an article by Mr. A. Wallis entitled " Relics of Literature,'' 
which appeared in the Derby Mercury, Nov. 1S69. It contains some useful infor- 
mation about the editions of Fitzherbert's works. It should be observed that 1 538 
was the very year of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert's death, which took place on May 27. 

3 In an edition printed by T. Petit in 1541, a copy of which is in the Cambridge 
University Library, the title is — "The Newe Booke of Justyces of Peas, made by 
Anthony Fitzherbard Judge, lately translated out of Frenche into Englyshe, The 
yere of our Lord God MDXLI." 

xiv Introduction. 

the proces of the Cessyons, Warrants, Superseders, wyth al 
that longyth to ony justice, &c." It is not pretended that 
this was our author's work ; but he improved upon it, as he 
did also upon the Natura Brevium. In his preface to La 
Novel Natura Brevium (Berthelet, 1534), he says that the 
original book was written by a learned man, whom he does 
not name : and that it was esteemed as a fundamental book 
for understanding the law. In the course of its translations, 
and of the alteration of the laws, many things had been 
retained which were unnecessary, and much desirable matter 
was omitted. This was what induced him to compose the 
new one. 

Upon this I have to remark, that it is incredible that 
Berthelet should mention a work which he knew to be by Sir 
Anthony Fitzherbert in one line, and in the next should 
proceed to speak of " Master Fitzherbarde " without a word 
of warning that he was speaking of a different person. The 
obvious inference is that the author of the Book on Survey- 
ing was, in his belief, the same person as the " A. F. K." who 
wrote "the boke longyng to a Justice of the peace." As it is, 
he takes no trouble about the matter ; for he could hardly 
foresee that any difficulty would thence arise. It is remark- 
able how frequently writers just stop short of being explicit, 
because they think that, at the moment of writing, a- fact is 
too notorious to be worth mentioning. 

Here the direct external evidence ceases. We now come 
to consider the internal evidence, which is interesting enough. 

In the first place, the author of the Book of Husbandry 
was also the author of the Book of Surveying, as he tells us 
explicitly in his prologue to the latter book. But whoever 
wrote the Book of Surveying must have been a considerable 
lawyer. It is of a far more learned and technical character 
than the Book on Husbandry, and abounds with quotations 

Introduction. xv 

from Latin statutes, which the author translates and explains. 
In Chap, i he says of a certain statute, that, in his opinion, 
it was made soon after the Battle of Evesham, in the time of 
Henry III. ; and he frequently interprets statutes with the air 
of one whose opinion was worth having. In Chap, xi., he 
enlarges upon the mistakes made by lords, knights, squires, 
and gentlemen who know but little of the law. " They come 
to the court or sende their clerkes, that can [know] as litle 
law as their maister or lasse, but that he vnderstandeth a lytell 
latyn." At the end of the same chapter, he is deep in law- 
terms, court-roll, fee simple, fee tayle, franke tenement, and 
all the rest of it. He then gives numerous forms, all in 
Latin, to be used by owners who wish to lease, grant, or 
surrender lands ; but only a good lawyer would venture to 
recommend forms suitable for such important purposes. 

Some other points of internal evidence have already been 
incidentally noticed, such as the author's familiarity with the 
mode of life of the rich ; his lesson made for " a gentylmans 
seruaunte " ; his readiness to try many ways of farming as an 
experimentalist who could afford to lose money; and his 
statement that Latin was no trouble to him. I proceed to 
notice a few more. 

Something further can be inferred from the author's men- 
tion of places. He speaks of so many counties, as Cornwall, 
Devon, Essex, Kent, Somerset, Buckinghamshire, Yorkshire, 
and Lancashire, that we can at first obtain no definite result. 
But there is an express allusion to " the peeke countreye " at 
p. 44; whilst at p. 81 he alludes to the parts about London 
by using the adverb " there," as if it were not his home. Yet 
that he was perfectly familiar with London is obvious from his 
allusions to it in chap. xix. of the Book on Surveying. But 
there are two more explicit references which are worth notice. 
At p. 27, he speaks of " the fartlier syde of Darbyshyre, called 

xvi Introduction. 

Scaresdale, Halomshyre, and so northewarde towarde Yorke 
and Ryppon." Now Scarsdale is one of the six " hundreds " 
of Derbyshire, and includes the country about Dronfield and 
Chesterfield ; whilst Hallamshire is a name given to a part of 
Yorkshire lying round and including Sheffield. We hence 
fairly deduce the inference that the author lived on the western 
side of Derbyshire, in the neighbourhood of Ashborne, so that 
he looked upon Chesterfield as lying on the farther side of 
the country, and at the same time northward, which is 
precisely the fact. We are thus led to locate the author in 
the very neighbourhood of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert's home. 

Again, at p. 65, he says that if he were to say too much 
about the faults of horses, he would break the promise that 
he made " at Grombalde brydge," the first time that he went 
to Ripon to buy colts. After some search as to the place 
here intended, I found, in Allen's History of Yorkshire, that 
one of the bridges over the Nidd near Knaresborough is called 
" Grimbald bridge;" 1 and, seeing that Knaresborough is 
exactly due south of Ripon, it follows that the author came 
from the south of Knaresborough. We seem, in fact, to trace 
the general direction of his first ride to Ripon, viz. from his 
home to the farther side of Derbyshire, through the north- 
west corner of Scarsdale to Sheffield, and " so northward " 
through Leeds and Knaresborough. Nothing can be more 

A very interesting point is the author's love of farming and 
of horses. As to horses, he tells us how he first went to 
Ripon to buy colts (p. 65) ; how many secrets of horse- 
dealing he could ,tell ; how, in buying horses, he had been 

1 Canon Simmons kindly tells me — " I find from the Ordnance Map that 
Grimbald Bridge is the one over the Nidd below the town, i.e. a mile or a mile 
and a quarter from the town. There are two crossing to the town. The upper 
one is on the Harrogate Road, a second " Low Bridge," and then the third, 
"Grimbald bridge." 

Introduction. xvii 

beguiled a hundred times and more (p. 63) ; how he used to 
say to his customers that, if ever they ventured to trust any 
horse-dealer, they had better trust himself (p. 73) ; and how- 
he had in his possession at one time as many as sixty mares, 
and five or six horses (p. 60). In this connection, it becomes 
interesting to inquire if Sir Anthony Fitzherbert was fond 
of horses likewise. 

It so happens that this question can certainly be answered 
in the affirmative ; and I have here to acknowledge, with 
pleasure and gratitude, the assistance which I have received 
from one of the family, 1 the Rev. Reginald Fitzherbert, of 
Somersal Herbert, Derbyshire. He has been at the trouble 
of transcribing Sir Anthony's will, a complete copy of which 
he contributed to " The Reliquary," No. 84, vol. xxi. April, 
1 88 1, p. 234. I here insert, by his kind permission, his 
remarks upon the subject, together with such extracts from 
the will as seem most material for our present purpose. 

"The following will of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, of Nor-, 
bury, is transcribed from the Office Copy at Somerset House 
(Dingley, fol. 20), and is now printed, as I believe, for the 
first time. The contractions have been written out in extenso. 

" Sir Anthony married, secondly, the co-heir of Richard 
Cotton, and with her he acquired the estate of Hampstall 
Ridware, which he probably kept in his own hands, and 
farmed himself. He succeeded his brother John at Norbury 
in 1 53 1, and died there in 1538, aged 68. 

" Fuller, in his Worthies, says that Sir Anthony Fitz- 
herbert's books are ' monuments which will longer continue 
his Memory than the flat blew marble stone in Norbury 
Church under which he lieth interred.' Camden (Gibson's 
ed. 1753, vol. i. p. 271) calls him Chief Justice of the Common 

1 It is the family tradition (which should go for something), that the author 
of the Book of Husbandry was Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, and no other. 


xviii Introduction. 

Pleas ; but Thoroton (Notts., ed. 1677, p. 344) says, 'I do not 
find that Anthony Fitzherbert was ever Chief Justice ; ' and 
it does not appear that he was more than, as he describes 
himself, " oon of the kings Justices." 

Extracts from 
Testamentum Anthonii Fitzherbert. 

" In nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti Amen. 

" I Anthony ffitzherbert oon of the kings Justices being hole in 
body and of parfite remembraunce thankes to almighty god make 
my last will and testament the xii day of October in the xxix th yere 
of the Reign of king Henry the eight 1 in fourme folowing ffirst I 
bequeth my soule to almighty god my saviour criste my Redemer 
and to our blissed Lady his mother and to Mighel my patron and 
to all the holy company of hevyn 

And I bequethe XL s to amende the high wayes 2 bitwixt 
Abbottes Bromley [and] Vttaxather. And to sir Thomas ffitz- 
william Lord Admyrall fyve markes and the best horsse or gelding 
that I haue. And to Humfrey Cotton V markes to ffraunces 
Cotton fyve markes and a gelding or a horsse of XL s price. And 
to euery of my housholde seruentes a quarter wagis besides their 
wagis due. And to euery of my seruentes that be used to Ryde with 
me 3 oon heyjfer of two yere olde and vpward or ellse oon felde Colt 
of that age. 

And to sir Henry Sacheuerell and to sir William Basset to euery 
of them oon horsse Colt of twoo yeres olde and aboue. . . . 

And tenne kyne and a bull and VIII oxen and a wayn and the 
ploez and other thinges longing to a wayne, to remayn at Rydwar for 
heire Lomes. And XII mares, and a stallande, and VI. fether- 
beddes and VI mattresses and Couerynges blankettes shetes and 
Counterpoyntes thereunto to logge honest gentilmen, and to re- 
main at Rydwar for heire lomes to the heires males of ffitzherbert . . . 

And I will that Kateryn my doughter haue foure bullockes and 
four heiffers and twoo ffetherbeddes and twoo bolsters and twoo 
mattresse and bolsters for them and shetes blankettes and other 
stuffe to make hir twoo good beddis yf I geve hir non by my 

1 The date is, therefore, October 12, 1537.— W. W.S. 

2 See p. 81.— W.W.S. 3 See p. 93.— W.W.S. 

Introduction. xix 

And where I caused Thomas ffitzherbert to surrendre the Inden- 
ture of the fferme of the parsonage of Caste/ton in the Peeke to the 
Abbot of Vayll Royal to the intent, to thentent (sic ) that I and he 
shulde haue fourty yeres terme therin more then was in the olde 
Indenture, And to take a newe leesse for terme of threscore and 
tenne yeres which olde leesse the same Thomas had by the manage 
of the doughter and heire of sir Arthur Eyre whiche sir Arthur 
Eyre willed that his bastard sonne shulde haue fyve markes yerely 
of the profites of the same fferme as apperith by his wille wherfor 
I will that the same bastard sonne haue the same fyve markes 
according to the same will And the Residue of the profites of the 
same fferme I will and require the same Thomas my sonne that 
John ffitzherbert his brother may haue the profites therof during 
his lyfe And after his decesse Richard ffitzherbert his brother And 
I will that my fferme at Caldon And the fferme that I haue of the King 
And the hozve Grange Remain to my heires males of Norbury And 
I will that the lande that I purchased at Whittington besides Lichefelde 
goo foreuer to kepe the obite at North wynfelde for my brother 
doctour soule according to his will and to be made sure — therfor 
as moche as may reasonably be devised therfor to stande with the 
lawe yf I do not assigne other landes therfor hereafter. . . . 

And I will that my Cosyn Richard Coton haue one good amblyng 
Colt or oon good horsse of myn to Ryde on by the discrecion of my 
wife and my son Thomas to be deliuered And to my Cosyn Alice 
his wyfe oon of my best habites with the Cloke and Hood and 
the Lynyng and the furr of the same. Written the day and yere 

The will was proved at Lichfield, August 26, 1538. 

I may add that the will mentions his wife dame Maude, 
his son Thomas, his three younger sons John, Richard, and 
William, and his daughter Kateryn ; also his cousin Richard 
Coton and his wife Alice. Thomas Fitzherbert married the 
daughter of Sir Arthur Eyre. 

It hence appears that Sir Anthony had no less than three 
farms, one at Castleton in the Peak, one at Caldon in 
Staffordshire, near Dove Dale, and a farm which he held of 
the King ; besides the How Grange and some land at Whit- 
tington near Lichfield, as also some purchased lands and 

xx Introduction. 

tenements in the counties of Stafford, Northampton, and 
Warwick, mentioned in a part of the will which I have not 
quoted. There was also the estate of Hampstall Ridware in 
Staffordshire, to which he attached considerable importance, 
directing his heir-looms to be kept there. He also makes 
mention, in all, of six horses (including a stallion and two 
geldings), twelve mares, three colts, one bull, four bullocks, five 
heifers, eight oxen, and ten cows, though it is obvious that 
these by no means include all his stock, but merely a selec- 
tion from it. All this precisely agrees with the statements 
in the Book of Husbandry. 

I do not think it necessary to pursue the subject further, 
but a word must be added as to the chronology. Not having 
seen the first edition of the Book of Husbandry printed by 
Pynson in 1523, I cannot certainly say whether the statement 
that the author had " been a householder for 40 years " occurs 
there. It occurs, however, in an undated edition by Peter 
Treuerys, 1 which is certainly the second edition, and printed 
between 1 521 and 1 531, as Treuerys is only known to have 
printed books during that period. Now this edition professes 
to have corrections and additions, the title being — " Here 
bygynneth a newe tracte or treatis moost pwfytable for all 
husbawde men / and very [frutefujll for all other persones 
to rede / newly corrected] & amended by the auctour with to 
dyuerse other thynges added thervnto;" and it agrees very 
closely with the copy here printed. The date assigned for 
Sir Anthony Fitzherbert's birth is 1470. If we suppose him 
to have begun housekeeping at 21, a period of 40 years will 

1 This early edition, clearly the second, and using Pynson's woodcut, was 
kindly pointed out to me by Mr. Bradshaw. It is not noticed in the usual books 
upon early printing, but a copy of it exists in the Cambridge University Library. 
The woodcut on the title-page is (as I have just said) the same as that on the 
title-page of the first edition. 

Introduction. xxi 

bring us to 1 531, which is not inconsistent with his statement, 
if such be the date of the copy above mentioned. If, how- 
ever, it should appear that the statement exists even in the 
first edition printed in 1523, then the "forty years" would 
lead us to suppose that, if the assigned date of his birth be 
correct, Sir Anthony began to be a householder, in his own 
estimation, at the early age of twelve or thirteen. This is 
of course a difficulty, but not an insuperable one, for the 
phrase " have been a householder" is somewhat vague, and 
the phrase " forty years or more " has rather the air of a 
rhetorical flourish. 

It may here be noticed that Berthelet's first edition (here 
reprinted) has nothing on the title-page but the words " The 
Boke OF HVSBANDRY," with the date 1534 below. Later 
reprints which follow Berthelet have accordingly no statement 
as to the book being " newly corrected and amended by the 
auctour," etc. ; whilst those which follow Treuerys naturally 
copy it This accounts for the fact that the later editions are, 
to the best of my belief, all very much the same, and that the 
claim to possess "corrections and amendments" means prac- 
tically nothing, except with reference to the first edition only. 

Of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, one of the best accounts 
seems to be that given in the Biographia Britannica, 1750, 
vol. iii. p. 1935, where Camden's statement as to his being 
" Chief Justice " is refuted. Briefly recapitulated, this account 
tells us that he was born in 1470, and was the younger son of 
Ralph Fitzherbert, Esq., of Norbury in Derbyshire ; that he 
went to Oxford, and thence to the Inns of Court ; was made 
a serjeant-at-law, Nov. 18, 151 1; was knighted in 15 16; was 
made one of his majesty's serjeants-at-law, and finally one of 
the Justices of the Court of Common Pleas in 1523. He died 
May 27, 1538, and was buried at Norbury. "Two things are 
mentioned in reference to his conduct ; first, that, without fear 

xx ii Introduction. 

of his power, he openly opposed Cardinal Wolsey in the 
heighth of his favour ; the other, that, when he came to lie 
upon his death-bed, foreseeing the changes that were like to 
happen in the Church as well as State, he pressed his children 
in very strong terms to promise him solemnly, neither to 
accept grants, nor to make purchases of abbey-lands ; which 
it is said they did, and adhered constantly to that promise, 
though much to their own loss." The authorities referred to 
are Pits, De Illustribus Anglise Scriptoribus, p. 707 ; Wood, 
Athense Oxonienses, i. col. 50 ; Fuller, Worthies, Derbyshire, 
p. 233 ; Tanner, Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, p. 283 ; 
Chronica Juridicialia, pp. 153, 155., etc. 

The number of editions of the Book of Husbandry is so 
large, and many of these are nevertheless so scarce, that I do 
not suppose the list here subjoined is exhaustive ; nor have 
I much information about some of them. I merely mention 
what I have found, with some authorities. 

1. A newe tracte or treatyse moost profy table for all 
Husbandemen, and very frutefull for all other persons to 
rede. London : by Rycharde Pynson. 4to. (1523). See Typo- 
graphical Antiquities, by Ames and Herbert, ed. Dibdin, ii. 
503. This is the first edition, and very rare. It was described 
by Dibdin from Heber's copy, supposed to be unique. See 
Heber's Catalogue, part ix. p. 61. The note in Hazlitt that 
a copy of this edition is in the Bodleian Library is a mistake, 
as I have ascertained. It is not dated, but the Book on 
Surveying, printed just afterwards, is dated 1523; and there 
is no doubt as to the date. It is remarkable for an engraving 
upon the title-page, representing two oxen drawing a plough, 
with drivers. 

2. " Here begynneth a newe tracte," etc. (See p. xx.) 
London, Southwark ; by P. Treuerys, 4to. (No date ; but 
between 1521 and 153 1). In the Camb. Univ. Library. This 

Introduction. xxiii 

is the only other edition which (as far as I know) has the 
picture of ploughing upon the title-page. 1 

3. By Thomas Berthelet, in 1532 (Lowndes). It is " i2mo 
in size, but in eights by signatures," and therefore 8vo. (A. 
Wallis ; Derby Mercury, Nov. 1869). 

4. By Thomas Berthelet ; 8vo. ; the edition here reprinted 
from the copy in the Cambridge University Library. There 
are also two copies of it in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 
The title-page has merely the words : " The | Boke OF | 
Hvs- I BANDRY ; " printed within a border bearing the date 
1534. The reverse of the title-page is blank. On the 
second leaf, marked A ij, begins " The aucthors prologue." 
The rest of sheet A (which contains in all only six leaves) 
is occupied with the Prologue and " the Table ; " and is not 
foliated. Then follow sheets B to M, all of eight leaves, and 
sheet N, of two leaves only. Sheets B to H have the folios 
numbered from 1 to 56; sheets I, K,L have the folios numbered 
from 51 to 75 ; and sheets M and N, from 81 to 90. Thus 
the six numbers 51-56 occur twice over, and the five numbers 
76-80 do not occur at all. It is not quite certain that the 
apparent date is also the real one ; for at the end of Ber- 
thelet's print of Xenophon's treatise of Housholde, which 
has 1534 within the same border upon the title-page, there 
is a colophon giving the date as 1537. This border was 
evidently in use for at least three years. See Dibdin, iii. 287. 

5. By Berthelet; 1546. This edition also contains the 
Treatise on Surveying. (Lowndes ; compare Dibdin, iii. 348.) 

6. By Berthelet; 1548. (Lowndes ; Dibdin, iii. 334, where 
it is described as i2mo.) A copy of this is noticed in the 
Catalogue of the Huth Library. 

1 Probably printed in 1531, as it professes to be "amended, with dyuerse 
other thynges added thervnto ; " for observe, that after this date, editions follow 
in quick succession. 

xxiv Introduction. » 

7. By Thomas Marshe ; (1560). This edition is said to be 
" newly corrected and amended by the author, Fitzherbarde ;" 
but is, of course, a mere reprint. See remarks upon this 
above. (Lowndes ; Dibdin, iv. 534.) In Arber's Transcript 
of the Stationers' Registers, i. 128, we find — " Recevyd 
of Thomas Marshe for his lycense for pryntinge of a boke 
Called the boke of husbondry, graunted the xx of June 
[1560] . . iiij. d. Hence the date, which is not given, may 
be inferred. 

8. By John Awdeley ; i6mo. 1562 ; " wyth diuers addicions 
put ther-vnto." (Dibdin, iv. 566.) 

9. By John Awdeley; 8vo. 1576; "with diuers additions 
put therunto." (Dibdin, iv. 568.) 

10. Fitzharbert's | BOOKE OF | Husbandrie. | DEVIDED Into 
foure seuerall Bookes, very ne | cessary and profitable for all 
sorts I of people. And now newlie corrected, amended, and 
reduced into a more pleasing forme of English then before. 
Ecclesiast. 10. ver. 28. Better is he that laboureth, and hath 
plentiousnesse of all thinges, then hee that is gorgious | and 
wanteth bread. At London, | Printed by J. R. for Edward 
White, and are | to be sold at his shoppe, at the little North 
doore of Paules Church, at the signe of the Gunne. | Anno 
Dom. 1598. Dedicated "To the Worshipfull Maister Henrie 
Iackman Esquire" ... by " Your Worships in affection I. R." 
Of this book I shall say more below. I have used the copy 
in the Douce Collection in the Bodleian Library. 1 

11. etc. There are numerous other editions. Hazlitt men- 
tions one by R. Kele (no date), " newlye corrected and 
amended by the auctor Fitzherbarde, with dyuers additions 
put therunto." Lowndes says : " London, by Richard Kele, 
i6mo. There are two editions, one containing H, the other I, 

1 Mr. Wallis (see p. xiii, note 2) mentions also an undated edition, printed by 
y<imes Roberts for E. White. 

Introduction. xxv 

in eights." Dibdin (iii. 533) mentions one by John Way land, 
8vo. (no date), Lowndes mentions an edition printed at 
London " in the Hovs of Tho. Berthelet," i6mo. ; eighty 
leaves ; also — another edition, slightly differing in ortho- 
graphy, and having at the end " Cum privilegio ; " also 
another "in the House of Thomas Berthelet," i6mo. A, 6 
leaves, B — M, in eights, N, 2 leaves, with the date of 1534 
on the title-page ; but this can be nothing else than the very 
book here reprinted, and it is not clear why he mentions it 
again. Lowndes also notices undated editions by John 
Walley, Robert Toye, Jugge, and Myddylton. 

It hence appears that the book was frequently reprinted 
between 1523 and 1598, but the last of these editions was 
such as to destroy its popularity, and I am not aware that it 
was ever again reprinted except in 1767, when the Books on 
Husbandry and Surveying were reprinted together l in a form 
strongly resembling the edition of 1534. 2 The title of this 
book is — " Certain Ancient Tracts concerning the manage- 
ment of Landed Property reprinted. London, printed for 
C. Bathurst and J. Newbery ; 1767." This is a fairly good 
reprint, with the old spelling carefully preserved ; but has 
neither note nor comment of any kind. A copy of it kindly 
lent me by Mr. Furnivall has proved very useful. 

The editions of the Book on Surveying are almost as 
numerous as those of the Book on Husbandry, though this 
was hardly to be expected, considering its more learned and 
technical character. It is not necessary to speak here par- 
ticularly of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert's acknowledged works. 

1 The volume also contains a translation of Xenophon's Treatise of Household 
(\6yo? otKovofiiKos), written by "Gentian Heruet." 

8 The colophon is the same. The Book on Surveying is dated 1539. The copy 
in the Cambridge Univ. Library contains the Husbandry (1534) ; Surveying (1539) ; 
and Xenophon (1537) ; all bound together. 

xxvi Introduction. 

The most important are the Grand Abridgment of the 
Common Law (15 14, folio), Office of Justices of the Peace 
(1538), Diversity of Courts (1539), and the New Natura 
Brevium, of which the ninth edition, with a commentary by 
Lord Hale, appeared in 1794. The first edition of the Grand 
Abridgment was printed by Pynson, who was also the printer 
of the first edition of the Book of Husbandry. The New 
Natura Brevium was printed in 1534 by Berthelet, who re- 
printed the Book of Husbandry in the same year. In a 
bookseller's catalogue, March, 1880, I chanced to see the 
following. " Early English Printing ; Black Letter ; Law 
Books in Latin and Norman-French (1543-51). Natura 
Brevium ; newely and most trewely corrected with diverse 
additions of statutes bokes cases plees in abatements, etc. ; 
London, Wyllyam Powel, 1 5 5 1. — Articuli ad Narrationes 
novas ; London, W. Powel, 1547. — Diuersite de courtz et lour 
jurisdiccions, et alia necessaria et utilia, London, W. Myd- 
dylton, 1543. The three works in 1 vol., sm. 8vo., old calf 
neat, quite perfect and very rare, 21s." 

The present volume contains a careful reprint of Berthelet's 
edition of 1534, which is a fairly good one. I have collated 
it throughout with the curious edition of 1598, which abounds 
with " corrections," some of them no improvements, and with 
additional articles. It is a very curious book, and I have 
given all the more interesting variations in the notes, with 
a description of the additions. The author, who only gives 
his initials " I. R." (by which initials I have been often obliged 
to quote him 1 ) has the effrontery to tell us that he has reduced 
Fitzherbert's work " into a more pleasing forme of English 
then before ;" and says that he has " labored to purge the 
same from the barbarisme of the former times." Again he 
addresses the reader, saying — " Gentle Reader, being vrged 

1 Possibly James Roberts ; see p. xxiv, note I. 

Introduction. xxvii 

by the consideration of the necessitie of this worke, and 
finding it almost cast into perpetuall obliuion, I haue purged 
it from the first forme of missounding termes to our daintie 
eares." This means, of course, that he has altered terms 
which he did not understand, and occasionally turns sense 
into nonsense ; yet he seems to have taken considerable pains 
with his author, and his additions are frequently to the point. 
Whether his discourses upon the keeping of poultry (p. 145, 
note to sect. 144) were really due to his " owne experience 
in byrds and foules," or whether he copied much of it from 
some of his predecessors, I have not been curious to discover. 
His references to Virgil, to the fable of Cynthia and Endy- 
mion, the Cinyphian goats, and the rest, are in the worst 
possible taste, and he was evidently far too staunch a Pro- 
testant to be able to accept all Fitzherbert's religious views, 
though modestly and unobtrusively introduced. After care- 
fully reading his production, I infinitely prefer Fitzherbert's 
" barbarisme " to I. R.'s pedantic mannerism, and I find the 
patronising tone of his occasionally stupid amendments to 
be almost insufferable ; but he may be forgiven for his zeal. 
The art of sinking in poetry has rarely been so well exem- 
plified as in the verses which are printed at pp. 145 and 

The reader can best understand what I. R conceives to be 
elegance of style by comparing the following extract with 
section 1 at p. 9. 

" Chapter 2. % By wJiat a Husbandman cheefely liueth. 

The most generall and commonest experienst lining that the 
toyle-imbracing Husbandman liueth by, is either by plowing 
and sowing of his Corne, or by rearing and breeding of 
Cattell, and not the one without the other, because t/iey be 
adjuncts, a?id may not be disceuered. Then sithens that the 
Plough is the first good instrument, by which the Husband- 

xxviii Introdcution. 

men rips from the Earths wombe a well-pleasing lining, I 
thinke it is most conuenient first to speake of the forme, 
fashion, and making therof." 

The words italicised (except in the title) are all his own. 

The Glossarial Index, a very full one, was almost entirely- 
prepared, in the first instance, by my eldest daughter, though 
I have since added a few explanations in some cases, and 
have revised the whole, at the same time verifying the refer- 
ences. As to the meaning of a few terms, I am still uncertain. 

Fitzherbert's general style is plain, simple, and direct, and 
he evidently has the welfare of his reader at heart, to whom 
he offers kindly advice in a manner least calculated to give 
offence. He is in general grave and practical, but there are 
a few touches of quiet humour in his remarks upon horse- 
dealing. " Howe be it I saye to my customers, and those 
that bye any horses of me, and [if] euer they wil trust any 
hors-master or corser whyle they lyue, truste me." I would 
have trusted him implicitly. 

The difficulties of his language arise almost entirely from 
the presence of numerous technical terms ; and it is, indeed, 
this fact that renders his book one of considerable philological 
interest, and adapts it for publication by the English Dialect 
Society. By way of a small contribution to English etymo- 
logy, I beg leave to take a single instance, and to consider 
what he has to tell us about the word peruse. 

The whole difficulty as to the etymology of this word 
arises from the change of sense ; it is now used in such a way 
that the derivation from per- and use is not obvious ; nor does 
it commend itself to such as are unacquainted with historical 
method. For this reason, some etymologists, including 
Webster, have imagined that it arose from peruise = pervise 
to see thoroughly, the i being dropped, and the u (really v) 
being mistaken for the vowel. This is one of those wholly 

Introduction. xxix 

unscrupulous fictions to which but too many incline, as if the 
cause of truth could ever be helped forward by means of 
deliberate invention. But there is no such word as peruise, 
nor any French perviser. Fitzherbert is one of the earliest 
authorities for peruse, though it also occurs in Skelton, Philip 
Sparrow, 1. 814. Investigation will show that, at the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth century, there was a fashion of 
using words compounded with per-, a number of which I have 
given in my Dictionary, s. v. peruse. The old sense was ' to 
use up, to go through thoroughly, to attend to one by one ;' 
and the word was sometimes spelt with a v, because vse {use) 
was generally so spelt. Examples are : — 

" Let hym [i.e. the husbandman who wants to reckon the 
tithe of his corn] goo to the ende of his lande, and begynne 
and tell [i.e. count] .ix. sheues, and let hym caste out the .x. 
shefe in the name of god, and so to pervse from lande to lande, 
tyll he have trewely tythed all his corne ;" sect. 30, 1. 4. 

" And thus [let the shepherd] peruse them all tyll he haue 
doone ;" sect, 40, 1. 23. 

" Than [let the surveyor who is surveying property go] to 
the second howse on the same east side in lyke maner, and so 
to peruse from house to house tyll he come to St. Magnus 
churche ;" Book of Surveying (1767), chap. xix. 

" Begyn to plowe a forowe in the middes of the side of 
the land, and cast it downe as yf thou shulde falowe it, and 
so peruse both sydes tyl the rygge be cast down," etc. ; Book 
of Surveying (1767) ; chap. xxiv. 

The special application to a book may be seen in Baret's 
Alvearie : " To ouerlooke and peruse a booke againe, Re- 
tractare librum." And accordingly it need not surprise us 
that Levins, in 1570, translated to peruse by peruti. 

There is just one more suggestion which I venture to make, 
though I fear, like most conjectures which are made with 

xxx Introduction. 

respect to Shakespeare, it is probably valueless. When King 
Lear appears, in Act iv. sc. 4 — 

" Crowned with rank fumiter and furrow-weeds, 
With hor-docks, hemlock, nettles, cuckoo-flowers, 
Darnel, and all the idle weeds that grow 
In our sustaining com " — 

I cannot help being reminded of Fitzherbert's list of weeds 
in sect. 20 (p. 29), in which he includes handoddes, i.e. corn 
blue-bottles, as is obvious from his description ; see also 
Britten and Holland's English Plant-names. It is certainly- 
remarkable that the handod is precisely one of " the idle 
weeds that grow in corn," and that its bright colour would 
be particularly attractive to the gatherer of a wild garland. 
We must not, however, overlook the form hard/take, which 
Mr. Wright has found in a MS. herbal as a name for the 
knapweed ; see his note upon the passage. The two results 
do not, however, greatly differ, and it is conceivable that the 
same name could be applied at different times to both these 
flowers, the latter being Centaurea nigra, and the former 
Centaurea Cyanns. We also find the term hardewes, occur- 
ring as a name for the wild succory ; see Hatvdod in the 
Glossarial Index, p. 156. In any case, the proposal of Dr. 
Prior to explain hordock by the burdock {Arctium lappa), 
merely because he thinks the burs were sometimes en- 
tangled with flax, and so formed lumps in it called hards, is 
a wild guess that should be rejected. Hards are simply 
the coarse parts of flax, without any reference to burdocks 

The wood-cut on the title-page is copied from the edition 
of 1598. The longer handle of the plough is on the left. 
See the description on p. 128. 


In the first side-note on p. 18, for Beating read Beeting. See 

Beate in the Glossary, p. 150. 
P. 120, sect. ,169, 1. 36. For a ut read aui. 

P. 136. Headline. For Notes (34. 1— 43) read iVo/es (34. 1—43). 
P. 140, last line. For Hellebor read Hellybor. 


$T The aucthors prologue. 

Sit is/a questio. This is the questyon, whervnto is ^° l ^ l ^ orn 
euerye manne ordeyned ? And as Job saythe, Homo 
nascitur ad laborem, sicut auis ad volandum : That is 

4 to saye, a man is ordeyned and borne to do labour, as 
a bird is ordeyned to flye. And the Apostle saythe, 
Qui non Iaborai, non manducet : Debet enim in obsequio dei 
laborare, qui de bonis eius vult manducare : That is to saye, 

8 he that laboureth not, shulde not eate, and he ought to He that 


labour and doo goddes warke, that wyll eate of his goodes °°t e j£ uld 
or gyftes. The whiche is an harde texte after the lyterall 
sence. For by the letter, the kynge, the quene, nor all 
1 2 other lordes spirituall and temporal shuld not eate, with- 
out they shuld labour, the whiche were vncomely, and 
not conuenyente for suche estates to labour. But who The Book of 

the Chess 

that redeth in the boke of the moralytes of the chesse, 
1 6 shal therby perceyue, that euerye man, from the hyest 
degree to the lowest, is set and ordeyned to haue labour 
and occupation ; and that boke is deuyded in vi. degrees, |s divided 

into six 


2 The Author 's Prologue. 

v! u Z een !ng ' ^at * s to sa y e > tne ky n o e > the quene, the byshops, the 

knights' 20 knightes, the iudges, and the yomenne. In the which 

judges, and 

yeomen, boke is shewed theyr degrees, theyr auctorytyes, theyr 

warkes, and theyr occupations, and what they ought to 

do. And they so doynge, and executynge theyr aucto- 

24 rytyes, warkes, and occupatyons, haue a wonders great 

whichlt^is study and labour, of the whiche auctorytyes, occupa- 

too long to , . . , 

write. tions, and warkes, were at this tyme to longe to wryte. 

Wherfore I remytte that boke as myn auctour therof: 
28 The whiche boke were necessary to be knowen of euery 

degree, that they myghte doo and ordre them selfe ac- 
As the yeo- cordynge to the same. And in so moche the yomen in 

men defend * ° 

shan re sVeak the sayde moralytyes and game of the chesse be set 

of husband- 

**• 32 before to labour, defende, and maynteyne all the other 

hyer estates, the whiche yomen represent the common 
people, as husbandes and labourers, therfore I purpose 
to speake fyrste of husbandrye. 


f The table. 


1. First wherby husbande men do lyue. fo. i. l 9 

2. Of dyuers maner of plowes. foL eod 9 

3. To knowe the names of all the partes of the ploughe. fol. ii. • io 

4. The temprynge of plowes. fo. iii 12 

5. 1 The necessary thynges that belonge to a plowe, carte, or 

wayne. fol. iiii *4 

6. H Whether is better, a plowe of oxen or a plowe of horses, fol. v. 15 

7. U The dylygence and the attendaunce that a husbande shulde 16 

gyue to his warke, in maner of an other prologue, and a 
specyall grounde of all this treatyse. fol. vi 

8. 1 Howe a manne shulde plowe all maner of landes all tymes of 

the yere. fo. vii. 17 

9. To plowe for pees and beanes. fol. viii. 18 

10. Howe to sowe bothe pees and beanes. fol. viii iS 

11. Sede of Discrecyon. fol. ix 20 

12. Howe all maner of come shulde be sowen. folio eodem. . 21 

13. To sowe barley, fol. x. 22 

14. To sowe otes. fol. xi 23 

15. To harowe all maner of comes, fol. xii. 24 

16. To falowe. fol. xiii. 25 

17. To carry out donge or mucke, and to sprede it. foL xiiii. . 27 

18. To set out the shepe-folde. fol. xv 28 

19. To cary wode and other necessaries. foL xvi 29 

20. To knowe dyuers maner of wedes. fol. eod 29 

21. To wede corne. fol. xvii 31 

22. The fyrste sturrynge : and (23) to mowe grasse. foli. xviii. . 32 

24. How forkes and rakes shuld be made. fo. xix. ... 33 

25. To tedde and make hey. fol. eod. 33 

26. Howe rye shulde be shome. fol. xx. 35 

27. Howe to shere whete. fol. xxi. 35 

28. To mowe or shere barley and otes. fol. eod 36 

1 The references are to the folios of the original edition. That the reader may find 
his place more readily, I have numbered each section. The numbers in thick type 
are, accordingly, not in the original. 

4 The Table. 

29. To repe or mowe pees and beanes. fol. xxii 36 

30. Howe all maner of come shoulde be tythed. folio eodem . 37 

31. Howe all maner of come shoulde be couered. fol. xxiii. . 38 

32. To lode come and mowe it. fol. eod 38 

33. The seconde sturrynge. fo. xxiiii. 39 

34. To sowe whete and rye. fol. eodem 39 

35. To thresshe and wynowe corne. fol. xxv 41 

36. To seuer beanes, pees, and fetches, fol. eod 41 

37. Of shepe, and what tyme of the yere the rammes shulde be 

put to the ewes. fol. xxvi 42 

38. To make a ewe to loue her lambe. fol. xxvii 43 

39. What tyme lambes shulde be wayned. fo. eod. ... 44 

40. To drawe shepe and seuer them in dyuerse partes, fol. xxviii . 44 

41. To belte shepe. fol. xxix 45 

42. To grece shepe. fol. eod 46 

43. To medle terre. fol. eodem 46 

44. To make brome salue. fol. eod 46 

45 . If a shepe haue mathes. fol. xxx 47 

46. Blyndenes of shepe and other dyseases, and remedyes therfore. 

fo. eod 47 

47. The worme in a shepes fote, and helpe therfore. fol. xxxi. . 48 

48. The bloudde, and remedye if he comme betyme. fol. eodem 48 

49. The pockes, and remedy therfore. fol. eod 49 

50. The wode euyl, and remedy therfore. fol. 32 49 

51. To washe shepe. fol. eod 49 

52. To shere shepe. fol. eod. 50 

53. To drawe and seuer the bad shepe frome the good. fol. eod. 50 

54. What thynge rotteth shepe. fol. xxxiii 50 

55. To knowe a rotten shepe dyuerse maner ways, wherof some of 

them wyll not fayle. fol. xxxiiii 51 

56. To by leane cattell. fol. eod 52 

57. To bye fatte cattell. fol. xxxv 53 

58. Dyuerse sickenesses of cattell, and remedies therfore, and 

fyrste of murren. fol. eod 53 

59. Long sought, and remedy therfore. fo. xxxvi 54 

60. Dewbolue, 1 and the harde remedye therfore. fol. eod. . . 55 

61. Ryson vppon, and the remedye therfore. fol. xxxvii. . . 55 

62. The turne, and remedy therfore. fol. eod 56 

63 . The warribred, & remedy therfore. fol. xxxviii. ... 56 

1 Read Dewbolne. 

The Table. 5 

64. The foule, and remedy therfore. fol. eod " . 57 

65. The goute without remedy. foL eod 57 

66. To rere calues. fol. eod 57 

67. To gelde calues. fol. xxxix 58 

68. Horses and mares to drawe. fol. xl 59 

69. IT The losse of a lambe, a calfe, or a foole. fol. xli. . 61 

70. What cattell shulde go together in oone pasture, fol. xlii. . 62 

71. The properties of horses, fol. xliii 63 

72. The two propertyes that a horse hath of a man. fol. eod. . 63 

73. The ii. propertyes of a bauson, fol. eod 64 

74. The iiii. properties of a lyon. fol. eod. 64 

75. The ix. properties of an oxe. fol. xliiii 64 

76. The ix. properties of an hare. fol. eod. 64 

77. The ix. properties of a foxe. fol. eod. 64 

78. The ix. properties of an asse. fol. eod 65 

79. The x. properties of a woman, fol. eod 65 

80. The diseases and soraunce of horses, fol. xlv 65 

81. The lampas. fol. eod 65 

82. The barbes. fo. eod 66 

83. Mournynge on the tonge. fol. eod 66 

84. Pursye. fo. eod 66 

85. Broken wynded. fol. eod 66 

86. Glaunders. fo. eod 66 

87. Mournynge on the chynne. fol. eod 66 

88. Stranguelyon. fol. eod. . 67 

89. The hawe. fol. eod 67 

90. Blyndnesse. fol. xlvi 67 

91. Uyues. fol. eod 67 

92. The cordes. fol. eod. 67 

93. H The farcyon. fol. eod 67 

94. H A malander. fol. eod 68 

95. IT A salander. fol. eod 68 

96. H A serewe. fol. eod 68 

97. H A splent. fo. eod 68 

98. IT A ryngebone. fol. xlvii 69 

99. H Wyndgall. fol. eod 69 

100. H Morfounde. foL eod 69 

101. H The coltes euyll. fol. eod 69 

102. H The bottes. fo. eod 70 

103. II The wormes. foL eod 70 

6 The Table. 

104. H Affrayd. fo. eod 70 

105. IT Nauylgall. fo. eod 70 

106. IT A spauen. fol. eod 70 

107. IT A curbe. fol. eod 71 

108. If The strynge-halte. fol. eod 71 

109. IT Enterfyre. fo. eod 71 

110. IT Myllettes. fol. eod 71 

111. II The paynes. fol. eod 71 

112. H Cratches. fol. eod 72 

113. IT Attaynt. fol. xlix. 72 

114. 1 Grauelynge. fol. eod 72 

115. U Acloyd. fol. eod 72 

116. II The scabbe. fol. eod. . 72 

117. IT Lowsy. fol. eod 72 

118. II Wartes. fol. eod 73 

119. U The sayenge of the frenche man. fo. eod 73 

120. IT The dyuersitie bytwene a horse mayster, a corser, and a horse 

leche. fol. 1 74 

121. H Of swyne. fo. eod 74 

122. IT Of bees. fol. li 75 

123. IT How to kepe beastes & other catel. fol. lii 76 

124. IT To get settes and set them. fol. liii 78 

125. II To make a dyche. fol. liiii 79 

126. IT To make a hedge, fol. eod 79 

127. H To plasshe and pleche a hedge, fol. eod 80 

128. IT To mende a hye waye. 81 

129. IT To remoue and sette trees, fo. lvi 82 

130. IT Trees to be sette without rootes and growe. fol. lvii. . . 83 

131. IT To fell woode for houssholde or to sell. fol. eodem. . . 83 

132. To shrede, lop, or crop trees, fol. lviii 84 

133. Howe a man shoulde shrede loppe or croppe trees, fol. eod. 85 

134. To sell woode or tymbre. fol. lix. 85 

135. To kepe sprynge woode. fo. lx. 86 

136. Necessary thynges belongynge to graffynge. fol. eod. . . 87 

137. What fruyte shulde be first graffed. fol. lxi 88 

138. Howe to graffe. fol. eod 88 

139. To graffe bytwene the barke and the tree. fol. Ixii. . . 89 

140. To nourysshe all maner of stone fruyte and nuttes. fol. lxiii. 90 

141. A shorte information for a yonge gentyllman that entendeth 

to thryue. fol. eod 90 

The Table. 7 

142. A lesson made in Englysshe verses, that a gentylmans 

seruaunte shall forget none of his gere in his inne behynde 

hym. fo. lxv. 93 

143. A prologe for the wyues occupation, fo. eod 93 

144. A lesson for the wyfe. fol. eod 94 

145. What thynges the wyfe of ryghte is bounde to do. foL Ixvi. 94 

146. What warkes the wyfe oughte to doo generally, fo. eod. . . 95 

147. To kepe measure in spendynge. fo. lxvii 98 

148. To eate within thy ledure. fo. Ixviii 99 

149. A shorte lesson vnto the husbande. fol. lxix. .... 101 

150. Howe menne of hye degree do kepe measure, fol. eodem. . 101 

151. Prodygalytie in outragyous and costelye araye. fol. lxx. . 102 

152. Of delycyous meates and drynkes. fol. eod 103 

153. Of outragious playe and game. fo. Ixxi. 104 

154. A prologue of the thyrde sayinge of the philosopher, fo. Ixxii. 105 

155. A dyuersytie bytwene predycation and doctryne. fol. eodem. 105 

156. What is rychesse. fo. lxxiii 106 

157. What is the propertie of a rych man. fo. lxxiiii. . . . 108 

158. What ioyes & pleasures are in heuen. fo. Ixxv 109 

159. What thynge pleaseth god most. fol. Ixxvi 109 

160. What be goddes commaundementes. fo. eod HO 

161. Howe a man shulde loue god and please hym. fol. eodem. . no 

162. Howe a man shoulde loue his neyghbour. fol. Ixxvii. . . 1 1 1 

163. Of prayer that pleaseth god verye moche. folio lxxviii. . . 112 

164. What thynge letteth prayer, fol. eod 112 

165. Howe a man shulde praye. fo. lxxix 113 

166. A mean to put away ydle thoughtes in prayenge. fol. lxxx. . 115 

167. A meane to auoyde temptation, fol. lxxxi 116 

168. Almes dedes pleaseth god moche. fo. lxxxi i 1 18 

169. The fyrst maner of almes dede. fo. lxxxiii 119 

170. The ii. maner of almes dede. fo. lxxxiiii. 120 

171. The Hi. maner of almes dede. fol. lxxxv 121 

172. What is the greattest offence that a man maye doo and offende 

god in. fo. lxxxvi 122 

Thus endeth the table. 

1. «[ Here begynneth the boke of husbandry, and fyrste [Fol t] 
where-by busbande-men do lyne. 

The mooste erenerall Ivuvnsre that husbandes can haue, Husband- 

° * - ° men live by 

is by plowynge and sowyng of theyr comes, and rerynge ^ b plo c u a ? t ^ 
or bredynge of theyr cattel, and not the one withoute tle - 
4 the other. Than is the ploughe the moste necessaryest 
instrumente that an husbande can occupy. Wherfore 
it is conuenyent to be knowen, howe a plough shulde 
be made. 

2. ^[ Dyuers maners of plowes. 
There be plowes of dyuers makynges in dyuers Different 

kinds of 

countreys, and in lyke wyse there be plowes of yren ploughs, 
of dyuers facyons. And that is bycause there be many 

4 maner of groundes and soyles. Some whyte cley, some 

redde cley, some grauell or chylturne, some sande, some 

meane erthe, some medled with marie, and in many 

places heeth-grounde, and one ploughe wyll not serue 

8 in all places. Wherfore it is necessarye, to haue dyuers 

maners of plowes. In Sommersetshyre, about Zelcester, [Foi. id.] 
the sharbeame, that in many places is called the ploughe- shire, 
hedde, is foure or fyue foote longe, and it is brode and 

12 thynne. And that is bycause the lande is verye toughe, 
and wolde soke the ploughe into the erthe, yf the shar- 
beame were not long, brode, and thynne. In Kente Kent, 
they haue other maner of plowes, somme goo with 

1 6 wheles, as they doo in many other places, and some wyll 
tourne the sheldbredth at euery landes ende, and plowe 
all one waye. In Buckynghamshyre, are plowes made ha m shife~. 


3. The parts of the plough. 

shire, &c. 

of an nother maner, and also other maner of ploughe- 

20 yrons, the whyche me semeth generally good, and lykely 

to serue in many places, and specially if the ploughbeame 

and sharbeame be foure ynches longer, betwene the 

shethe and the ploughe-tayle, that the sheldbrede myght 

24 come more a-slope : for those plowes gyue out to sodeinly, 

and therfore they be the worse to drawe, and for noo 

cause elles. In Leycestershyre, Lankesshyre, Yorkeshyre, 

Lyncoln, Norfolke, Cambrydge-shyre, and manye other 

28 countreyes, the plowes be of dyuers makinges, the whyche 

were to longe processe to declare howe, &c. But how 

so euer they be made, yf they be well tempered, and 

goo well, they maye be the better suffred. 

[Fol. 2.] 

3. \ To knowe the names of all the partes of the plowe. 

Parts of the 






Men that be no husbandes maye fortune to rede this 
boke, that knowe not whiche is the ploughe-beame, the 
sharebeame, the ploughe-shethe, the ploughe-tayle, the 
4 stilte, the rest, the sheldbrede, the fenbrede, the roughe 
staues, the ploughe-fote, the ploughe-eare or coke, the 
share, the culture, and ploughe-mal. Perauenture I gyue 
them these names here, as is vsed in my countre, and yet 
8 in other countreyes they haue other names : wherfore ye 
shall knowe, that the ploughe-beame is the longe tree 
aboue, the whiche is a lytel bente. The sharbeame is the 
tre vnderneth, where-vpon the share is set ; the ploughe- 

12 sheth is a thyn pece of drye woode, made of oke, that is 
set fast in a morteys in the plough-beame, and also in to 
the share-beame, the whiche is the keye and the chiefe 
bande of all the plough. The plough-tayle is that the 

16 husbande holdeth in his hande, and the hynder ende of 
the ploughebeame is put in a longe slyt, made in the same 
tayle, and not set faste, but it maye ryse vp and go 

3. The parts of the plough. 1 1 

do\v[n]e, and is pynned behynde, and the same ploughe- 
20 tayle is set faste in a morteys, in the hynder ende of the 

sharebeame. The plough-stylte is on the ryghte syde of [Foi. z*.] 

r ° * Plough-stilt. 

the ploughe, whervpon the rest is set ; the rest is a lyttell R est. 
pece of woode, pynned fast vpon the nether ende of the 
24 stylt, and to the sharebeame in the ferther ende. The 

sheldbrede is a brode pece of wodde, fast pinned to the Shield- 

r board. 

ryghte side of the shethe in the ferther ende, and to the 

vtter syde of the stylte in the hynder ende. The fen- Fen-board. 

28 brede is a thyn borde, pynned or nayled moste commonly 
to the lyft syde of the shethe in the ferther ende, and to 
the ploughe-tayle in the hynder ende. And the sayde 
sheldbrede wolde come ouer the sayde shethe and fen- 

32 brede an inche, and to come past the myddes of the 
share, made with a sharpe edge, to receyue and turne the 
erthe whan the culture hath cut it. There be two roughe Rough 
staues in euery ploughe in the hynder ende, set a-slope 

36 betwene the ploughe-tayle and the stilt, to holde out 
and kepe the plough abrode in the hynder ende, and the 
one lenger than the other. The plough-fote is a lyttell Plough-foot, 
pece of wodde, with a croked ende set before in a mor- 

40 teys in the ploughe-beame, sette fast with wedges, to 
dryue vppe and downe, and it is a staye to order of 
what depenes the ploughe shall go. The ploughe-eare Plough- ear. 
is made of thre peces of yren, nayled faste vnto the ryght 

44. syde of the plough-beame. And poore men haue a [Foi. 3.] 
croked pece of wode pynned faste to the ploughbeame. 
The share is a pece of yren, sharpe before and brode Share, 
behynde, a fote longe, made with a socket to be set on 

48 the ferther ende of the share-beame. The culture is a Coulter, 
bende pece of yren sette in a morteys in the myddes of 
the plough-beame, fastened with wedges on euery syde, 
and the backe therof is halfe an inche thycke and more, 

52 and three inches brode, and made kene before to cutte 
the erthe clene, and it must be wel steeled, and that 


4. The tempering of ploughs. 


shall cause the easyer draughte, and the yrens to laste 
moche lenger. The plough-mal 1 is a pece of harde 
56 woode, with a pynne put throughe, set in the plough - 
beame, in an augurs bore. 

4. \ The temprynge of plowes. 

of ploughs, 

Rest- baulk. 

[Fol. 3*.] 

Nowe the plowes be made of dyuers maners ; it is neces- 

sarye for an housbande, to knowe howe these plowes 

shulde be tempered, to plowe and turne clene, and to 

4 make no reste-balkes. A reste-balke is where the plough 

byteth at the poynte of the culture and share, and cutteth 

. not the ground cleane to the forowe, that was plowed laste 

before, but leaueth a lyttell rydge standynge betwene, 

8 the whiche dothe brede thistyls, and other wedes. All 

these maner of plowes shulde haue all lyke one maner 

of temperyng in the yrens. Howe-be-it a man maye 

temper for one thynge in two or thre places, as for 

12 depnes. The fote is one: the setting of the culture of 

a depnes, is a-nother : and the thyrde is at the ploughe- 

siot wedges, tayle, where be two wedges, that be called slote-wedges : 

the one is in the slote above the beame, the other in 

16 the saide slote, vnder the plough-beame ; and other whyle 
he wyll set bothe aboue, or bothe vndernethe, but alway 
let hym take good hede, and kepe one generall rule, that 
the hynder ende of the sharebeme alway touche the erthe, 

20 that it may kyll a worde, 2 or elles it goth not truly. The 
temperynge to go brode and narowe is in the settyng of 
the culture : and with the dryuinge of his syde-wedges, 
forewedge, and helewedge, whiche wolde be made of 

24 drye woode, and also the settynge on of his share help- 
eth well, and is a connynge poynte of husbandry, and 
mendeth and payreth moch plowyng : but it is so narowe 

Narrow and 
broad tem- 

Setting on 
of the share 

1 Misprinted 'blough-mal.' 

2 Sic ; ed. 1598 has 'worme. 

4. Tlie tempering of ploughs. 1 3 

a point to know, that it is harde to make a man to vnder- 
28 stande it by wrytynge, without he were at the operation 

therof, to teache the practyue : for it muste leane moche [ Fo1 - 4-] 
in-to the forowe, and the poynt may not stande to moch 
vp nor downe, nor to moche in-to the lande, nor into 
3 2 the forowe. Howe-be-it, the settynge of the culture Setting of 

the coulter. 

helpeth moche. Somme plowes haue a bende of yron 
tryanglewise, sette there as the plough-eare shulde be, 
that hath thre nyckes on the farther syde. And yf he 
36 wyll haue his plough to go a narowe forowe, as a sede- Seed- 
forowe shulde be, than he setteth his fote-teame in the 
nycke nexte to the ploughe-beame ; and yf he wyll go Mean 


a meane bredth, he setteth it in the myddell nycke, 
40 that is beste for sturrynge ; and if he wolde go a brode Broad 
forowe, he setteth it in the vttermoste nycke, that is beste 
for falowynge : The whyche is a good waye to kepe the 
bredthe, and soone tempered, but it serueth not the 
44 depenesse. And some men haue in stede of the plough- 
fote, a piece of yron set vpryghte in the farther 
of the ploughe-beame, and they calle it a coke, made • a coke.' 
with ii. or thre nyckes, and that serueth for depenes. 
48 The plowes that goo with wheles, haue a strevghte Wheei- 


beame, and maye be tempred in the yron, as the other be, 
for the bredth ; but their most speciall temper is at the 
bolster, where-as the plough-beame lyeth, and that 

52 serueth both for depnes and for bredth. And they be 

good on euen grounde that lyeth lyghte, but me semeth [Foi. 4*.] 
they be farre more costly than the other plowes. And 
thoughe these plowes be well tempred for one maner 

56 grounde, that tempre wyll not serue in an other maner 
of grounde ; but it muste reste in the dyscretion of the 
housbande, to knowe whanne it gothe well. 

Bows, yokes 

The wain. 

[Fol. 5.] 


and axle- 

The cart. 


hatchet, &c, 

14 5. The plough, cart, and wain. 

5. f The necessary thynges that belonge to a ploughe, 
carte, and wayne. 

Bvt or he begyn to plowe, he muste haue his ploughe 
and his ploughe-yren, his oxen or horses, and the geare 
that belongeth to them ; that is to say, bowes, yokes, 
4 landes, stylkynges, wrethynge-temes. And or he shall 
lode his come, he muste haue a wayne, a copyoke, a 
payre of sleues, a wayne-rope, and a pykforke. This 
wayne is made of dyuers peces, that wyll haue a greate 
8 reparation, that is to saye, the wheles, and those be made 
of nathes, spokes, fellyes, and dowles, and they muste 
be well fettred with wood or yren. And if they be yren 
bounden, they are moche the better, and thoughe they 

12 be the derer at the fyrst, yet at lengthe they be better 
cheape ; for a payre of wheles yren bounde wyl weare vii. 
or viii. payre of other wheles, and they go rounde and 
lyght after oxen or horses to draw. Howbeit on marreis 

16 ground and soft ground the other wheles be better, 
bycause they be broder on the soule, and will not go so 
depe. They must haue an axiltre, clout with .viii. 
waincloutes of yren, ii. lyn-pinnes of yren in the axiltre- 

20 endes, ii. axil-pynnes of yren or els of tough harde 
wodde. The bodye of the wayne of oke, the staues, the 
nether rathes, the ouer rathes, the crosse somer, the keys 
and pikstaues. And if he go with a hors-ploughe, than 

24 muste he haue his horses or mares, or both his hombers or 
collers, holmes whyted, tresses, swyngletrees, and togwith. 
Alsoo a carte made of asshe, bycause it is lyghte, and 
lyke stuffe to it as is to a wayne, and also a cart-sadel, 

28 bakbandes, and belybandes, and a carte-ladder behinde, 
whan he shall carye eyther corne or kyddes, or suche 
other. And in many countreys theyr waynes haue carte- 
ladders bothe behynde and before. Also an husbande 

32 muste haue an axe, a hachet, a hedgyngebyll, a pyn-awgur, 

6. Tlie Jwrse-plough and ox-plough. 1 5 

a rest-awgur, a flayle, a spade, and a shouell. And howe- 
be-it that I gyue theym these names, as is most comonly 
vsed in my contrey, I knowe they haue other names in [Foi.53.] 

36 other contreyes. But hereby a manne maye perceyue 

many thynges that belonge to husbandry, to theyr greate ^ x P ens ? of 
costes and charges, for the mayntenance and vpholdyng 
of the same. And many moo thynges are belongynge to 

40 husbandes than these, as ye shall well perceyue, er I 
haue made an ende of this treatyse. And if a yonge 
husbande shulde bye all these thynges, it wolde be 
costelv for hvm : wherfore it is necessarye for hym to f t''s better to 

make than 

44 lerne to make his yokes, oxe-bowes, stooles, and all bu y- 
maner of plough-geare. 

6. % Whether is better, a plough of horses or a plough of 


It is to be knowen, whether is better, a plough of Ox-plough 

r ° and horse- 

horses, or a plough of oxen, and therin me semeth »■■«■*• 

oughte to be made a distinction. For in some places an 

4 oxe-ploughe is better than a horse-plough, and in somme 

places a horse-ploughe is better : that is to say, in euery 

place where-as the husband hath seueral pastures to put 

his oxen in whan they come fro theyr warke, there the oxe- 

8 ploughe is better. For an oxe maye nat endure his The ox. 

warke, to labour all daye, and than to be put to the [Foi.6.] 

commons, or before the herdman, and to be set in a folde 

all nyghte without meate, and go to his labour in 

12 the mornynge. But and he be put in a good pasture all 
nyghte, he wyll labour moche of all the daye dayely. 

And oxen wyl plowe in tough cley, and vpon hylly 
grounde, where-as horses wyll stande st[i]ll. And where- 

16 as is noo seuerall pastures, there the horse-plowe is better, The horse, 
for the horses may be teddered or tyed vpon leys, balkes, 
or hades, where as oxen maye not be kept : and it is not 
vsed to tedder them, but in fewe places. 

1 6 7. Necessity of diligefice. 

20 And horses wyl goo faster than oxen on euen grounde 
or lyght grounde, & be quicker for cariage : but they be 
ferre more costly to kepe in winter, for they must haue both 
hey and corne to eate, and strawe for lytter ; they must 

24 be well shodde on all foure fete, and the gere that they 

shal drawe with is more costely than for the oxen, and 

Oxen are shorter whyle it wyll last. And oxen wyll eate but straw, 


and a lyttell hey, the whiche is not halfe the coste that 

28 horsis must haue, and they haue no shoes, as horses haue. 

And if any sorance come to the horse, or [he] waxe olde, 

broysed, or blynde, than he is lyttell worthe. And if any 

sorance come to an oxe, [and he] waxe olde, broysed, or 

[F0I.6J.] 32 blinde, for ii..y. he maye be fedde, and thanne he is mannes 

and they can meate, and as good or better than euer he was. And the 

be eaten. . ■ i . 

horse, whan he dyethe, is but caryen. And therfore me 
semeth, all thynges consydered, the ploughe of oxen is 
36 moche more profytable than the ploughe of horses. 

7. % The dylygence and attendaunce that a husbande shulde 
gyue to his warke, in maner of an other prologue, and 
the speciall grounde of all this treatyse. 

Take pains, Thou husbande, that intendeste to gette thy lyuynge 

keep mea- 
sure, and be by husbandry, take hede to the sayenge of the wyse 
r ' cn - 

phylosopher, the which sayth, Adhibe curam, tene mensuram, 

4 et eris diues. That is to saye, Take hede to thy charge, 

kepe measure, and thou shalt be ryche. And nowe to 

speke of the fyrste artycle of these .iii. s[cilicet] Adhibe 

curam. He that wyll take vpon hym to do any thinge, 

8 and be slouthefull, recheles, and not diligent to execute 

and to performe that thynge that he taketh vpon hym, 

he shall neuer thryue by his occupation. And to the 

same entente saythe our lorde in his gospell, by a parable. 

[Foi. 7.] 1 2 Nemo mittens manum suam ad aratrum respiciens retro, aptus 

8. How to plough. 17 

est regno dei. The spirytuall constructyon of this texte, I Luke ix. 62. 
remytte to the doctours of dyuynitie, and to the greate 
clarkes ; but to reduce and brynge the same texte to my 

16 purpose, I take it thus. There is noo man, puttynge his Noman^ 
hande to the plough, lokyng backewarde, is worthy to hand *> & the 
haue that thynge that he oughte to haue. For if he 
goo to the ploughe, and loke backewarde, he seeth not 

20 whether the plough go in rydge or rayne, make a balke, 
or go ouerthwarte. And if it do so, there wyll be lyttell 
come. And so if a man attende not his husbandrye, but Be not idle, 
goo to sporte or playe, tauerne or ale-house, or slepynge 

24 at home, and suche other ydle warkes, he is not than 

worthy to haue any come. And therfore, Fac quod venisti, Do what you 

J * came to do. 

Do that thou comest fore, and thou shalte fynde that thou 
sekest fore, &c. 

8. ^1 Howe a man shulde plowe all maner of landes all tymes 
of the yere. 

Nowe these plowes be made and tempered, it is to ^mes of the 
be knowen howe a man shoulde plowe all tymes of 
the yere. In the begynnynge of the yere, after the 

4 feast of the Epiphany, it is tyme for a husbande to [Foi. 7 3.] 
go to the ploughe. And if thou haue any leys, to plough leas 
falowe or to sowe otes vpon, fyrste plowe them, that 
the grasse and the mosse may rotte, and plowe them 

8 a depe square forowe. And in all maner of plowynge, 
se that thy eye, thy hande, and thy fote do agree, 
and be alwaye redy one to serue a-nother, and to turne 
vp moche molde, and to lay it flat, that it rere not Lay the 

* ' J mould flat. 

12 on edge. For if it rere on edge, the grasse and mosse 
wyll not rotte. And if thou sowe it with winter-corne, 
as whete or ry, as moche come as toucheth the mosse 
wyll be drowned, the mosse dothe kepe such wete in 

16 it self. And in some countreys, if a man plowe depe, 

1 8 9. Of peas and beans. 

he shall passe the good grounde, and haue but lyttel 
corne : but that countrey is not for men to kepe husban- 
dry vppon, but for to rere and brede catell or shepe, for 
Wwfth 20 eIles the ) r muste %° beate the y r landes with mattockes, 
as they do in many places of Cornewayle, and in som 
places of Deuonshyre. 



9. f To plowe for pease and beanes. 

beans and Howe to plowe for pees and beanes, were necessarye 

to knowe. Fyrst thou muste remember, whiche is 

[Foi.:8.] mooste cley-grounde, and that plowe fyrste, and lette 

4 it lye a good space, er thou sowe it : bycause the 

froste, the rayne, the wynde, and the sonne may cause 

it to breake smalle, to make moche molde, and to 

Plough a rygge it. And to plow a square forowe, the bredthe 

square fur- ' **° r • 

8 and the depenes all one, and to laye it close to his 
felow. For the more forowes, the more corne, for a 
generall rule of all maner of cornes. And that may 
be proued at the comynge vp of all maner of corne, 
12 to stande at the landes ende and loke toward the other 
ende ; And than may ye se, hovve the corne groweth. 

10. $T Howe to sowe bothe pease and beanes. 

Sowing of Thou shalt sowe thy peas vpon the cley-grounde, 

peas and 

beans. and thy beanes vpon the barley-grounde : for they 

wolde haue ranker grounde than pease. How-be-it 
4 some husbandes holde opynion, that bigge and styffe 
grounde, as cley, wolde be sowen with bigge stuffe, 
as beanes ; but me thynke the contrary. For if a dry 
sommer come, his beanes wil be shorte. And if the 
8 grounde be good, putte the more beanes to the pease, 
and the better shall they yelde, whan they be thresshed. 

10. Of peas and beans. 19 

And if it be very ranke grou«de, as is moche at euery [Foi. sa.] 
towne-syde, where catel doth resort, plowe not that 
12 lande, tyll ye wyll sowe it; for if ye do, there wyll 

come vppe kedlokes and other wedes. And than sowe In ™ n $ 

x ■ ground sow 

it with beanes ; for if ye sowe pees, the kedlokes wyll beans - 
hurte them ; and wha« ye se seasonable time, sow 

16 both pees and beanes, so that they be sowen in the 
begynnynge of Marche. Howe shall ye knowe season- 
able tyme ? go vppon the lande, that is plowed, and if it if the land 
synge or crye, or make any noyse vnder thy fete, than weftosow. 

20 it is to wete to sowe : and if it make no noyse, and 
wyll beare thy horses, thanne sowe in the name of god. 
But howe to sowe ? Put thy pees in-to thy hopper, and How t° sow 
take a brode thonge, of ledder, or of garthe-webbe of 

24 an elle longe, and fasten it to bothe endes of the 
hopper, and put it oner thy heed, lyke a leysshe ; and 
stande in the myddes of the lande, where the sacke 
lyethe, the whiche is mooste conueniente for the fyllynge 

28 of thy hopper, and set thy lefte foote before, and take 
an handefull of pees: and whan thou takeste vp thy 
ryghte foote, than caste thy pees fro the all abrode ; and 
whan thy lefte fote ryseth, take an other handeful, and 

32 whan the ryght fote ryseth, tha« cast them fro the. 

And so at euery ii. paces, thou shake sowe an hand- [Foi. 9.] 

ful of pees: and so se that the fote and the hande 

agree, and than ye shal sowe euen. And in your Cast them 

36 castynge, ye muste open as well your fyngers as your hande, ™ e " 
and the hver and farther that ye caste your corne, the 
better shall it sprede, excepte it be a greatte wynde. 
And if the lande be verye good, and wyll breke small 

40 in the plowynge, it is better to sowe after the ploughe 
thanne tarye any lenger. 

20 11. Seed of discretion. 

11. ^f Sede of discretion. 

SeedofDis- There is a sede, that is called Discretion, and if 


a husband haue of that sede, and myngle it amonge 
his other cornes, they wyll growe moche the better ; 
4 for that sede wyll tell hym, how many castes of corne 
euery lande ought to haue. And a yonge husbande, and 
may fortune some olde husbande, hath not sufficyente 
Borrow dis- of that sede : and he that lackethe, let hym borowe 

cretion, if 

you have it 8 of his neyghbours that haue. And his neyghbours 

be vnkynde, if they wyll not lende this yonge hous- 

bande parte of this sede. For this sede of Discretion 

hath a wonders property : for the more that it is taken 

12 of or lente, the more it is. And therfore me semeth, 

[Foi. oi.] it shoulde be more spyrituall than temporall, wherin 

Temporal is a greate dyuersitie. For a temporall thynge, the 

things, when . 

divided, more it is deuyded, the lesse it is : and a spirytuall 


1 6 thynge, the more it is deuided, the more it is. Verbi 

gratia. For ensaumple, I put case a wyfe brynge a 

lofe of breade to the churche, to make holy breade 

of; whan it is cut in many smal peces, and holy 

20 breade made therof, there may be so many men, women, 

and children in the churche, that by that tyme the priest 

hath delte to euery one of them a lyttell pece, there 

shall neuer a crume be lefte in the hamper. And a 

Spiritual 24 spiritualle thynge as a Paler-noster, or a prayer, that any 

divided, man can say, let hym teache it to .xx., a .c, or to a .M., 


yet is the prayer neuer the lesse, but moche more. And 

so this sede of Discreciow is but wisdome and reason : and 

28 he that hath wysedome, reason, and discretion may teche 

it, and enforme other men as he is bounde to do. Wherein 

he shall haue thanke of god : and he doth but as god hath 

Matt. x. 8. commaunded hym in his gospell, Quod gratis accepistis, 

32 gratis date: That thynge that ye toke frely, gyue it frely 

again, and yet shall ye haue neuer the lesse. 

12. How to sow corn. 2 1 

12. % Howe all maner come shoulde be sowen. 

Bvt yet me thynkethe it is necessarye to declare, howe [Foi. io.] 
all maner of come shuld be sowen, and howe moch 
vpon an acre most comonly, and fyrste of pease and 

4 beanes. An acre of grounde, by the statute, that is to say An a "e of 
xvi. fote and a half to the perche or pole, foure perches 
to an acre in bredth, and fortye perches to an acre in 
lengthe, may be metelye well sowen with two London ^°° don 

8 busshelles of pease, the whyche is but two strykes in 
other places. And if there be the .iiii. parte beanes, than 
wylle it haue halfe a London bushelle more : and yf it be 
halfe beanes, it wyll haue thre London bushels : and if it 
12 be all beanes, it wyll haue foure London busshelles fullye, 
and that is half a quarter ; bycause the beanes be gret, and 
grow vp streight, & do not sprede and go abrode as 
pease do. An acre of good beanes is worth an acre & a Beansworth 

° more than 

1 6 half of good pees, bycause there wylle be more busshelles. p^- 
And the beste propertie that belongeth to a good 
husband is, to sowe all maner of corne thycke ynough, 
and specially beanes and barley. For commonly they be 

20 sowen vpon ranke ground, and good grounde wylle haue 
the burthen of corne or of wede. And as moche 
plowynge and harowynge hath an acre of grounde, and 
sowe thervppon but oone busshelle, as yf he sowed .iiii. [Foi. 106.] 

24 busshelles. And vndoutedly .i. busshell may not gyue so 
moche corne agayne, as the .iiii. busshels, though the .iii. 
bushels, that he sowed more, be alowed and set aparte. 
And i. busshel and an halfe of white or grene pees, wyll White, 

green, and 

28 sowe as moche grounde, as two busshels of gray pees : grey peas, 
and that is bycause they be so smal, and the husband 
nedeth not to take so great an handful. In some 
countreys they begyn to sowe pees soone after Christ- 

32 masse : and in some places they sowe bothe pees and 
beanes vnder forowe : and those of reson must be sowen 


13. How to sow barley. 

Feb. 2. betyme. But moste generally, to begyn sone after Candel- 

masse is good season, so that they be sowen ere the 

36 begynnynge of Marche, or sone vpon. And specially let 
them be sowen in the olde of the mone. Forthopinion of 
olde husbandes is, that they shoulde the better codde, 
and the sooner be rype. But I speke not of hasty pees, 

40 for they be sowen before Christmasse, &c. 


[Fol. 11.] 

Sow five 
bushels to 
the acre. 



13. \ To sowe barley. 

Every good housbande hath his barleye-falowe well 
dounged, and lyenge rygged all the depe and colde of 
wynter ; the whiche ryggynge maketh the lande to be 
4 drye, and the dongynge maketh it to be melowe and 
ranke. And if a drye season come before Candelmasse, 
or sone after, it wolde be caste downe and waterforowed 
bytwene the landes, that the wete rest not in the raine : 
8 and in the begynnynge of Marche, rydge it vppe agayne, 
and to sowe in euery acre fyue London bushelles, or 
foure at the leaste. And some yeres it maye so fortune, 
that there cometh no seasonable wether before Marche, 

12 to plowe his barley-erthe. And as soone as he hath 
sowen his pees and beanes, than let hym caste his barley- 
erthe, and shortly after rygge it agayne : soo that it be 
sowen before Apryll. And if the yere-tyme be paste, 

16 than sowe it vpon the castynge. 

1[ It is to be knowen that there be thre maner of barleys, 
that is to say, sprot-barleye, longe-eare, and beare-barley, 
that some menne call bigge. Sprot-barley hath a flat 

20 eare most comonly, thre quarters of an inche brode, 
and thre inches long, and the cornes be very great 
and white, and it is the best barley. Long-eare hath 
a flatte eare, halfe an inche brode, and foure inches 

24 and more of length : but the corne is not so greate 
nor soo whyte, and sooner it wyll turne and growe 

14. How to sow oats. 23 

to otes. Bere-barleye or bygge wolde be sowen vppon Bear-barley, 
lyghte and drye grounde, and hathe an eare thre ynches of [Foi. h*.] 

28 lengthe or more, sette foure-square, lyke pecke-whete, 
small comes, and lyttel floure, and that is the worste 
barley, and foure London bushels are suffycient for an 
acre. And in some countreyes, they do not sowe theyr 

32 barley tyll Maye, and that is mooste commonly vpon 
grauel or sandy grounde. But that barley generally is 
neuer soo good as that that is sowen in Marche. For if it Sow in 


be verve drie wether after it be sowen, that corne that 
36 lyeth aboue, lyeth drie, and hath noo moysture, and that 
that lyeth vndernethe, commeth vp : and whan rayne 
cometh, than sprutteth that that lyeth aboue, and often- 
tymes it is grene whan the other is rype : and whan it is 
40 thresshen, there is moche lyghte corne, &c. 

14. (£f- To sowe otes. 

And in Marche is tyme to sowe otes, and specially vpon 0a ts. 
lyght grounde & drie, howe-be-it they wylle grow on 
weter grounde than any corne els : for wete grounde 
4 is good for no maner of corne ; and thre London bushels 
wyl sowe an acre. 

And it is to be knowen, that there be .iii. maner of otes, [Foi. 12.] 
that is to saye, redde otes, blacke otes, and roughe otes. Red oats. 
8 Red otes are the beste otes, and whan they be thresshed, 
they be yelowe in the busshell, and verye good to make 
otemele of. Blacke otes are as great as they be, but they Black oats, 
haue not so moche floure in them, for they haue a thycker 
12 huske, and also they be not so good to make otemele. 

The roughe otes be the worste, and it quiteth not the Rough oats, 
coste to sowe them : they be very lyghte, and haue longe 
tayles, wherby they wyll hange eche one to other. All 
16 these maner of otes weare the grounde very sore, and 


15. How to harrow corn. 

how thick to 

maketh it to beare quyche. A yonge housbande ought to 
take hede, howe thycke he sowethe all maner of come, 
two or three yeres : and to se, howe it cometh vp, and 

20 whether it be thycke ynoughe or not : and if it be thynne, 
sowe thycker the nexte yere : and if it be well, holde his 
hande there other yeres : and if it be to thynne, let hym 
remember hym selfe, whether it be for the vnseason- 

24 ablenes of the wether, or for thyn sowynge. And so 
his wysedome and discretion muste discerne it. 

15. f To harowe all maner of comes. 

[Fol. 12*.] 

The ox-har- 

The horse- 

' The ox is 
never woe, 
Till he to the 
harrow go.' 

[Fol. 13.] 

Nowe these landes be plowed, and the come sowen, it 
is conuenient, that they be well harowed ; or els crowes, 
doues, and other byrdes wyll eate and beare awaye the 

4 cornes. It is vsed in many countreys, the husbandes to 
haue an oxe-harowe, the whiche is made of sixe smal 
peces of timbre, called harowe-bulles, made eyther of 
asshe or oke ; they be two yardes longe, and as moche as 
8 the small of a mannes legge, and haue shotes ' of wode 
put through theym lyke lathes, and in euery bull are syxe 
sharpe peces of yren called harowe-tyndes, set some-what 
a- slope forwarde, and the formes[t] slote 2 must be bygger 

12 than the other, bycause the fote-teame shall be fastened 
to the same with a shakyll, or a withe to drawe by. This 
harrowe is good to breake the greatte clottes, and to make 
moche molde, and than the horse-harowes to come after, 

16 to make the clottes smaller, and to laye the grounde euen. 
It is a greate labour and payne to the oxen, to goo to 
harowe : for they were better to goo to the plowe two 
dayes, thanne to harowe one daye. It is an olde saying, 

20 * The oxe is neuer wo, tyll he to the harowe goo.' And 
it is bycause it goeth by twytches, and not alwave 
after one draughte. The horse-harrowe is made of fyue 
1 'slotes'? 2 Misprinted 'flote.' 

16. How to fallow. 25 

bulles, and passe not an elne of lengthe, and not soo 
24 moche as the other, but t'ley be lyke sloted and tinded. 
And wha« the corne is well couered, than it is harowed 
ynough. There be horse-harowes, that have tyndes of 
wodde : and those be vsed moche about Ryppon, and 
28 suche other places, where be many bulder- stones. For st o ne s? r " 
these stones wold weare the yren to soone, and those 
tyndes be mooste commonly made of the srrounde ende of Tines of the 

* ' *f harrow 

a yonge asshe, and they be more thanne a fote longe in made of ash 
32 the begynnvnge, and stande as moche aboue the harowe 

as benethe. 

And as they weare, or breake, they dryue them downe 

lower ; and they wolde be made longe before, ere they be 
36 occupied, that they maye be drye ; for than they shall 

endure and last moche better, and stycke the faster. 

The horses that shall drawe these harowes, muste be well Horses for 


kepte and shodde, or elles they wyll soone be tyred, and 
40 sore beate, that they may not drawe. They must haue 
hombers or collers, holmes withed about theyr neckes, 
tresses to drawe by, and a swyngletre to holde the tresses Swingle- 


abrode, and a togewith to be bytwene the swyngletre and 
44 the harowe. And if the barleye-grounde wyll not breake 
with harrowes, but be clotty, it wolde be beaten with 
malles, and not streyght downe ; for than they beate the [Foi. 133.] 
corne in-to the erthe. And if they beate the clot on 
48 the syde, it wyll the better breake. And the clot wyll lye 
lyghte, that the corne maye lyghtely come vp. And they 
vse to role thevr barlev-grounde after a shoure of ravne, R°"'n? the 

* * ° - ground. 

to make the grounde euen to mowe, &c. 

16. f To falowe. 

Nowe these housbandes haue sowen theyr pees, beanes, 
barley, and otes, and harowed them, it is the beste tyme, 
to falowe, in the later ende of Marche and Apryll, for Fa,lowin 

r • April. 

4 whete, rye, and barley. And lette the husbande do the 

26 16. How to fallow. 

broaland beste he can, to plowe a brode forowe and a depe, 

deep> soo that he turne it cleane, and lay it flat, that it rere 

not on the edge : the whiche shall destroy all the thistils 

8 and wedes. For the deper and the broder that he gothe, 

the more newe molde, and the greatter clottes shall he 

haue, and the greatter clottes, the better wheate. For 

the clottes kepe the wheate warme all wynter, and at 

12 Marche they wyll melte and breake, and fal in .manye 

small peces, the whiche is a newe dongynge, and re- 

[Foi.14 • fresshyncre of the corne. And also there shall but lyttell 

misprinted jo 

i6 -J wedes growe vpon the falowes, that are so falowed. For 

16 the plough goth vndernethe the rootes of all maner of 

wedes, and tourneth the roote vpwarde, that it maye not 

growe. And yf the lande be falowed in wynter tyme, it is 

in winter 

farre the worse, for three principall causes. One is, all the 

(1) rain will 20 rayne that commeth, shal washe the lande, and dryue 

wash the 

land ; awaye the dounge and the good moulde, that the lande 

(2) rain will shall be moche the worse. An other cause is, the rayne 

shall beate the lande so flat, and bake it so hard to-gyther, 
24 that if a drye Maye come, it wyll be to harde to stere in 

(3) the weeds the moneth of Tune. And the thyrde cause is, the wiedes 

will take J J 

deep root. shall take suche roote, er sterynge-tyme comme, that they 

wylle not be cleane tourned vndernethe, the whiche shal 

28 be great hurte to the corne, whan it shall be sowen, and 

specially in the weding-tyme of the same ; and for any 

other thynge, make a depe holowe forowe in the rydge of 

Do not rest- the lande, and loke wel, thou rest-balke it nat ; for if 


32 thou do, there wyll be many thystels : and than thou 
shalte not make a cleane rydge at the fyrste sterynge, 
and therfore it muste nedes be depe plowed, or elles 
thou shalt nat tourne the wiedes cleane. 

17. How to spread dung. 27 

17. «[ To cary out donge or mncke and to sprede it. • [Foi. i 4 j.] 
And in the later ende of Apryll, and the begynnynge of 
Maye, is tyme to cary out his dounge or mucke, and Carry out 
to lay it vppon his barley-grounde. And where he hath 
4 barley this yere, sowe it with whete or rye the next 
tyme it is falowed, and so shal he mucke all his landes 
ouer at euerye seconde falowe. But that husbande that 
can fynd the meanes to cary oute his donge, and to laye 
8 it vpon his lande after it be ones sturred : it is moche Lav dung on 

r the land 

better than to laye it vppon his falowe, for dyuer causes. * fter the . 
One is, if it be layde vpon his fallowe, all that fallethe 
in the holowe rygge shall do lyttell good ; for whan 

12 it is rygged agayne, it lyeth soo depe in the erthe, that 
it wyll not be plowed vp agayne, excepte that whan he 
hath sprede it, he wyll with a shouell, or a spade, caste 
out all that is fallen in the rygge. And if it be layde 

16 vpon the sturrynge, at euery plowynge it shall medle a "dsoon 
the donge and the erthe togyder, the whiche shall rin s- 
cause the come moche better to growe and encreace. 
And in somme places, they lode not theyr donge, 

20 tyll harvest be done, & that is vsed in the farther 

syde of Darbyshyre, called Scaresdale, Halomshyre, [Foi. 15.] 
and so northewarde towarde Yorke and Ryppon : and 
that I calle better thanne vppon the falowe, and specyally 

24 for barley : but vppon the fyrste sturrynge, is beste 
for wheate and rye, and that his dunge be layde vpon 
smal hepes nygh together, and to sprede it euenly, and spread it 
to leue no dounge there-as the mucke-hepe stode, for even y ' 

28 the moystnes of the dounge shall cause the grounde to 

be ranke ynoughe. And if it be medled with erthe, Mixitwith 
as sholynges and suche other, it wyll laste the longer, 
and better for barley than for whete or rye, bycause of 

32 wedes. Horse-donge is the worste donge that is. The 
donge of all maner catell, that chewe theyr cudde, 
is verye good. And the dounge of douues is best, Doves' dang, 
but it must be layde vppon the grounde verye thynne. 

28 18. How to set out a sheep-fold. 

18. f To set out the shepe-folde. 

The sheep- Also it is tyme to set out the shepefolde in May, 

and to sette it vppon the rye-grounde, if he haue any, 

and to flyte it euery mornynge or nyght : and in the 

4 mornynge, whan he cometh to his folde, let not his 

[Foi i5<5.] shepe out anone, but reyse theym vp, and let them 

stande stylle good season, that they may donge and 

See if the pysse. And go amonge them to se whether any of 

maggots. 3 them haue any mathes, or be scabbed : and se them 

thre or foure tymes on the oone syde, and as ofte on 

the other syde. And whan the kelles begonne besyde 

the grounde, than lette theym out of the folde, and 

12 dryue theym to the soundest place of the felde. But 

Folding he that hath a falowe felde, seueral to hym-selfe, let 

sheep is not 

a good plan. hym occupie no folde. For foldynge of shepe maketh 

them scabbed, and bredeth mathes ; and whanne a 

1 6 storme of yll wether commeth in the night, they can 

nat flee nor go awaye, and that appeyreth them sore 

of their flesshe. But lette that man that hath such a 

Drive stakes seueral falowe-felde, driue twentie, thyrty, or forty stakes, 

in the field. 

2o accordynge to the nombre of his shepe, vpon his falowe, 
where he wolde sette his folde, and specially in the 
farthest parte of the fyelde frome thense as they comme 
in, for the goynge vppon dothe moche good. And 

24 lette the sheparde brynge his shepe to the stakes, and 
The sheep the sheepe wylle rubbe them on the stakes. And lette 

will rub x * 

against the sheparde goo aboute them, tyll they be sette, and 

thus serue theym two or three nyghtes, and they wyll 

28 folowe those stakes, as he flytteth them, and syt by 

[Foi. 16 them. And if any yll wether come, they will ryse vp, 

misprinted * * J * * 

J 4-] and go to the hedge. And this maner of foldynge 

shall brede noo mathes nor scabbe, nor appeyre theym 

32 of theyr flesshe, and shall be a greate sauegarde to the 

shepe for rottynge : and in the mornynge put them out 

of theyr pasture, and thou shake not nede to bye any 

19. How to carry wood. 29 

hurdels nor shepe-flekes ; but howe ye shall salue them Use no 

' hurdles. 

36 or dresse them, ye shall vnderstande in the chaypter of 
shepe after. 

19. *[ To cary wodde and other necessaryes. 
And in May, whan thou hast falowed thy grounde, and i" ^i*r 

carry wood. 

set oute thy shepefolde, and caryed oute thy dounge or 
mucke, if thou haue any wodde, cole, or tymbre to 
4 cary, or suche other busynes, that muste nedes be doone, 
with thy charte or wayne, than is it tyme to do it. For 
than the waye is lyke to be fayre and drye, and the days The days are 
longe, and that tyme the husbande hath leeste to doo in 
8 husbandry. Perauenture I set one thynge to be done at 
one tyme of the yere, and if the husbande shulde do it, 
it shulde be a greatter losse to hym in an other thynge. 
Wherefore it is moste conuenient to do that thynge fyrst, 
1 2 that is moste profytable to hym, and as soone as he [Foi. 16*.] 
can, do the other labour. 

20. «[ To knowe dyuers maner of wedes. 

In the later ende of Maye, and the begynnynge of in June 
June, is tyme to wede thy corne. There be diuers maner corn, 
of wedes, as thistyls, kedlokes, dockes, cocledrake, 

4 darnolde, gouldes, haudoddes, dogfenell, mathes, ter, 
and dyuers other small wedes. But these be they that 
greue mooste : The thistyll is an yll wede, roughe and Thistles, 
sharpe to handell, and freteth away the cornes nygh it, 

8 and causeth the sherers or reapers not to shere cleane. 

Kedlokes hath a leafe lyke rapes, and beareth a yelowe charlock, 
floure, and is an yll wede, and groweth in al maner corne, 
and hath small coddes, and groweth lyke mustard sede. 
1 2 Dockes have a brode lefe, and diuers high spyres, and Docks, 
very small sede in the toppe. Cockole hath a longe small cockle, 
lefe, and wyl beare fyue or vi. floures of purple colour, as 


20. Different kinds of weeds. 

' Drake.' 
[Fol. 17.] 






[Fol. i 7 i.] 


brode as a grote, and the sede is rounde and blacke, and 

1 6 maye well be suffred in a breade-corne, but not in sede, 
for therin is moche floure. Drake is lyke vnto rye, till it 
begynne to sede, and it hath many sedes lyke fenell-sedes, 
and hangeth downewarde, and it maye wel be suffred in 

20 breade, for there is moche floure in the sede : and it is an 
opinion that it commeth of rye, &c. Dernolde groweth 
vp streyght lyke an hye grasse, and hath longe sedes on 
eyther syde the sterte, and there is moche floure in that 

24 sede, and growethe moche amonge barley : and it is 
sayde, that it cometh of small barley. Golds hath a shorte 
iagged lefe, and groweth halfe a yarde hygh, and hath a 
yelowe floure, as brode as a grote, and is an yll wede, and 

28 groweth commonlye in barleye and pees. Hawdod hath 
a blewe floure, and a fewe lyttell leues, and hath .v. or syxe 
braunches, floured in the toppe : and groweth comonly in 
rye vpon leane grounde, and dothe lyttel hurte. Dogge- 

32 fenell and mathes is bothe one, and in the commynge vp 
is lyke fenell and beareth many white floures, with a 
yelowe sede : and is the worste wede that is, excepte terre, 
and it commeth moste commonly, whan great wete com- 

36 meth shortly after the come is sowen. Terre is the 
worste wede, and it neuer dothe appere tyll the moneth 
of June, and specyallye whanne there is great wete in 
that mone, or a lyttell before, and groweth mooste in rye, 

40 and it groweth lyke fytches, but it is moche smaller, and 
it wyll growe as hyghe as the corne, and with the weyght 
therof it pulleth the corne flatte to the erth, and freteth 
the eares away ; wherfore I haue seene housbandes mowe 

44 downe the corne and it together : And also with sharp 
hokes to repe it, as they doo pees, and made drye, and 
than it wyll be good fodder. 

There be other wedes not spoken of, as dee-nettylles, 

48 dodder, and suche other, that doo moche harme. 

21. How to iveed corn. 3 1 

21. \ Howe to wede come. 
Nowe it wolde be knowen, howe these cornes shulde be Ho ^ to 


weded. The chyefe instrument to wede with is a paire 
of tonges made of wode, and in the farther ende it is 
4 nycked, to holde the wed faster ; and after a shoure of 
raine it is beste wedynge, for than they maye be pulled 
vp by the rotes, and than it cometh neuer agayne. And 
if it be drve wether, than muste ye haue a wedvnsre-hoke "W'eeding- 

J J J ° hook. 

8 with a socket set vpon a lyttel staffe of a yarde longe, and 
this hoke wolde be well steeled, and grounde sharpe bothe 
behynde and before. And in his other hande he hath a Forkedstick. 
forked stycke a yarde longe, and with his forked stycke 

1 2 he putteth the wede from hym, and he putteth the hoke [Foi. 18.] 
beyond the rote of the wede, and pulleth it to hym, and 
cutteth the wede fast by the erthe, and with his hoke he 
taketh up the wede, and casteth it in the reane, and if 

16 the reane be full of corne, it is better it stande styll, 
whan it is cut, and wyddre : but let hym beware, that he 
trede not to moche vppon the corne, and specyallye after 
it is shotte, and whan he cutteth the wede, that he cut Cutnotthe 

, corn. 

20 not the corne : and therefore the hoke wolde not passe 
an inche wyde. And whanne the wede is soo shorte, 
that he can not with his forked stycke put it from hym, 
and with the hoke pull it to hym, thanne muste he set 

24 his hoke vppon the wede, fast by the erthe, and put it 
from hym, and so shall he cutte it cleane. And with 
these two instruments, he shall neuer stoupe to his warke. Sto °P not - 
Dogfenell, goldes, mathes, and kedlokes are yll to wede 

28 after this maner, they growe vppon so many braunches, 

harde by the erthe : and therfore they vse most to pul Pul1 °p 

r darnel. 

them vppe with theyr handes ; but loke well, that they 
pull not vppe the corne with all ; but as for terre, there 
32 wyll noo wedynge serue. 


32 22. The first stirring, 

22. f The fyrst sturrynge. 

[Foi. i83.] Also in June is tyme to rygge vppe the falowe, the 

whiche is called the fyrst sturrynge, and to plowe it as 

depe as thou canste, for to tourne the rotes of the wedes 

4 vpwarde, that the sonne and the drye wether maye kyll 

them. And an housbande can not conuenyentelye plowe 

How to his lande, and lode out his dounge bothe vppon a daye, 

plough and b fr J > 

load out with one draughte of beastes : but he maye well lode oute 

8 his dounge before none, and lode heye or come at-after 
none : or he maye plowe before none, and lode hey or 
corne at-after none, with the same draughte, and noo 
hurte to the cattell : bycause in lodynge of hey or corne, 
12 the cattel is alwaye eatynge or beytynge, and soo they 
can not doo in lodynge of dounge and plowynge. 

23. % To mowe grasse. 

End of June. Also in the later ende of June is tyme to begyn to 

mowe, if thy medowe be well growen : but howe-so-euer 

j u iy. they be growen, in July they muste nedes mowe, for 

4 diuers causes. One is, it is not conueniewt to haue hey 

Mow hay an d come bothe in occupation at one tyme. An other is, 


the yonger and the grener that the grasse is, the softer 

[Foi. 19.] and the sweter it wyll be, whan it is hey, but it wyll haue 

8 the more wyddrynge ; and the elder the grasse is, the 

harder and dryer it is, and the worse for al maner of 

cattell : for the sedes be fallen, the whiche is in mancr 

of prouander, and it is the harder to eate and chowe. 

12 And an other cause is, if drye wether come, it wyll drye 

and burne vpon the grounde, and waste away. Take 

Howtomow hede that thy mower mow clene and holde downe the 

hynder hand of his sith, that he do not endent the grasse, 

16 and to mowe his swathe cleane thorowe to that that 

was laste mowen before, that he leaue not a mane by- 

twene, and specyallye in the common, medowe : for in 

24. How to make forks and rakes. 33 

the seuerall medowe it maketh the lesse charge, and that 
20 the moldywarpe-hilles be spredde, and the styckes cleane m e-hUis. 
pycked out of the medowe in Apryll, or in the begin- 
nynge of Maye. 

24. \ Howe forkes and rakes shulde be made. 
A Good husbande hath his forkes and rakes made F ° rks anJ 


redye in the wynter before, and they wolde be gotte 
bytwene Mighelmasse and Martylmasse, and beyked, and 
4 sette euen, to lye vpryght in thy hande : and than they [ Fo1 - *9*-] 
wyll be harde styffe and drye. And whan the housbande 
sytteth by the fyre, and hath nothynge to do, than maye 
he make theym redye, and tothe the rakes with drye wethy- 
8 wode, and bore the holes with his wymble, bothe aboue fo°7ne°eeth 
and vnder, and driue the tethe vpwarde faste and harde, ottherakes - 
and than wedge them aboue with drye woode of oke, for 
that is hard, and wil driue and neuer come out. And if 

12 he get them in sappe-tyme, all the beykyng and drienge 
that can be had shal not make them harde and styffe, 
but they woll alwaye be plyenge : for they be moste ^fl wUh' 
comonly made of hasell and withee, and these be the 

16 trees that blome, and specially hasell : for it begynneth 

to blome as sone as the lefe is fallen. And if the rake Use no , 

green wood. 

be made of grene woode, the heed wyll not abyde 
vppon the stele, and the tethe wyll fall out, whan he 

20 hath mooste nede to them, and let his warke, and lose 

moche heye. And se that thy rake and forke lye vpryghte e^nf. 311 
in thy hand, for and the one ende of thy rake, or the syde 
of thy forke, hang downe-warde, than they be not hand- 

24 some nor easy to worke with. 

25. \ To tedde and make hay. 

Whan thy medowes be mowed, they wolde be well t Fo1 - ^-l 
tedded and layde euen vppon the grounde : and if the 2f ddine 
grasse be very thycke, it wolde be shaken with handes, 

34 25. How to ted hay. 

Ted hay a or with a shorte pykforke. For good teddynge is the 


chiefe poynte to make good hey, and than shall it be 
wyddred all in lyke, or elles not : and whan it is wel 
wyddred on the ouer syde, and dry, than turne it cleane 
8 before noone, as soone as the dewe is gone : And yf thou 
dare truste the wether, lette it lye so all nyghte : and 
on the nexte daye, tourne it agayne before none, and 
towarde nyght make it in wyndrowes, and than in smal 

Hay-cocks. 1 2 hey-cockes, and so to stande one nyghte at the leaste, and 
sweate : and on the nexte fayre day caste it abrode 
agayne, and tourne it ones or twyse, and than make it 

Larger j n greatter hey-cockes, and to stande so one nyght or 


1 6 more, that it maye vngiue and sweate. For and it sweate 

not in the hey-cockes, it wyll sweate in the mowe ; and 

than it wyll be dustye, and not holsome for hors, beastes, 

nor shepe. And whan it standeth in the cockes, it is 

20 better to lode, and the more hey maye be loded at a lode, 

Quich-hay. and the faster it wyll lye. Quyche-hey commeth of a 

grasse called crofote, and groweth flatte, after the erthe, 

[Foi. 20*.] and bearethe a yelowe floure halfe a yarde hygh and 

24 more, and hath many knottes towarde the roote, and it 

is the beste hey for horses and beastes, and the sweteste, 

if it be well got ; but it wyll haue moch more wyddrynge 

than other hey, for els he wyll be-pysse hym-selfe and 

How to 28 waxe hote, and after dustye. And for to knowe whanne 

know when , ,. c , 

hay is dry. it is wyddred ynoughe, make a lyttell rope or the same, 

that ye thinke shulde be moste greneste, and twyne it as 
harde to-gether bytwen your handes as ye canne, and soo 

Twist a 32 beynge harde twon, let one take a knyfe, and cut it faste 

wisp, and 3 .• - . , 

then cut it. by your hande ; and the knottes wyll be moyste, yf it be 

not drye ynough. Shorte hey, and leye-hey, is good for 

shepe, and all maner of catell, if it be well got. A man 

36 maye speke of makynge of hey, and gettynge of come, 

but god disposeth and ordreth all thynge. 

26. How to sJiear rye. 35 

26. \ Howe rye shulde be shorne. 
In the later ende of Julv, or in the begynnynge of in July, 

• _ sheax rye. 

Auguste, is tyme to shere Rye, the whiche wolde be 
shorne cleane, and faste bounden. And in somme 

4 places they mowe it, the whiche is not soo good to the 
housbandes profytte, but it is the sooner done. For 
whan it is mowen, it wyll not be so fast bounden : and [Foi. «.] 
he can not gather it soo cleane, but there wyll be moche 

8 losse, and taketh more rowme in the barne than shorne 
come dothe. And also it wyll not kepe nor saue it selfe 
from rayne or yll wether, whan it standeth in the couer, 
as the shorne come wyll do. 

27. \ Howe to shere wheate. 
Wheate wolde be shorne cleane, and harde bounden Shear wheat 


in lyke maner ; but for a generall rule, take good hede, 
that the sherers of all maner of whyte come cast not 
4 vppe theyr handes hastely, for thanne all the lose come, 
and the strawes, that he holdeth not fast in his hande, 
flieth ouer his heed, and are loste : and also it wyll pull 
of the eares, and specyallye of the comes that be verve 
8 rype. In somme places they wyll shere theyr comes ?. h< jf rin s 
hyghe, to the entente to mowe theyr stubble, eyther to 
thacke or to bren : if they so do, they haue greate cause 
to take good hede of the sherers. For if the eares of 

12 come croke downe to the erthe, and the sherer take 
not good hede, and put up the eare er he cut the 
strawe : as many eares as be vnder his hoke or side 
fall to the erthe, and be loste; and whan they mowe [Foi. 21$.] 

16 the stubble, it is great hyndraunce to the profytte of 

the grounde. And in Sommersetshire, about Zelcestre ^terand 
and Martok, they doo shere theyr wheate very lowe, ^eTshear 
and all the wheate-strawe that they pourpose to make low " 

20 thacke of, they do not thresshe it, but cutte of the 


28. How to shear barley or oats. 

Best kind of 

eares, and bynde it in sheues, and call it rede : and 
therwith they thacke theyr houses. And if it be a 
newe house, they thacke it vnder theyr fote : the 
24 whiche is the beste and the surest thacking that can 
be of strawe, for crowes and douues shall neuer hurte it. 

28. fcf To mowe or shere barley and otes. 

Mow barley 
and oats. 

Barley and otes be moste commonly mowen, and a 

man or woman folowythe the mower with a hande-rake 

halfe a yarde longe, with .vii. or .viii. tethe, in the 

4 lyfte hande, and a syckle in the ryghte hande, and 

with the rake he gethereth as moche as wyll make a 

shefe. And thanne he taketh the barley or otes by the 

toppes, and pulleth out as moche as wil make a band, 

8 and casteth the band from him on the land, and with his 

rake and his syckle taketh vp the barley or otes, & 

[Foi. 22.] layeth them vppon the bande, and so the barley lyeth 

vnbounden .iii. or .iiii. dayes, if it be fayre wether, 

12 and than to bynde it. And whan the barley is ledde 

Rake after- away, the landes muste be raked, or els there wyll be 


moche corne loste, and if the barley or otes lye, they 
muste nedes be shorne. 

Reap or 
mow peas 
and beans. 

Bind them 

Cut beans 

29. f To repe or mowe pees and beanes. 

Pees and benes be moste commonly laste reped or 
mowen, of diuers maners, some with sickles, some 
with hokes, and some with staffe-hokes. And in some 

4 places they lay them on repes, and whan they be dry, 
they laye them to-gether on heapes, lyke hey-cockes, 
and neuer bynde them. But the beste way is, whan 
the repes be dry, to bynde them, and to set theym on 

8 the rydge of the landes three sheues to-gether; and 
loke that your sherers, repers, or mowers geld not 
your beanes, that is to saye, to cutte the beanes so hye, 

30. How to tithe com. 37 

that the nethermoste codde growe styll on the stalke ; 
12 and whan they be bounden, they are the more redyer 
to lode and vnlode, to make a reke, and to take fro 
the mowe to thresshe. And soo be not the repes. 

30. r Howe all maner of comes shulde be tythed. [Foi. 22*.] 
Nowe that all these cornes before specyfyed be How to 

r J J tithe. 

shorne, mowed, reped, bounden vp, and layde vppon 

the rydge of the lande, lette the housbande take 

4 hede of goddes commaundemente, and let hym goo 

to the ende of his lande, and begynne and tell .ix. Count 9 

*-" sheaves, and 

sheues, and let hym caste out the .x. shefe in the ^ h out the 
name of god, and so to pervse fro/ra lande to lande, 
8 tyll he haue trewely, tythed all his come. And beware, 
and take hede of the sayinge of our lorde by his 
prophete Malachias, the whiche saythe, Quia michi non Maiachi in. 

8, 9. 

dedisli decimas et primilias, id circo in fame et penuria 
12 maledicti estis. That is to saye, Bycause ye haue not 
gyuen to me your tythes, and your fyrste-fruytes, there- 
fore ye be cursed, and punysshed with honger and 
penury. And accordynge to that saynte Austyn saythe : Augustine. 
16 Da decimas, alioqui incides in decimam. partem angelorum 

qui de celo corruerunt in infernum. That is to say, Gyue Give tithes 


thy tythes truely, or els thou shalt fall amonge the tenthe 
parte of aungelles that felle from heuen in-to hell, the 

20 whiche is an harde worde to euery man, that oughte to 

gyue tythes, and doth not gyue them truely. But saynte [Foi. 23.] 
Austyne saythe a comfortable worde again, to them that Augustine, 
gyue theyr tythes truely, that is to saye : Decimce sunt 

24 tributa egentium animarum : Tythes are tributes or Tithes are 
rewardes to nedye soules. And ferther he saythe : Si the needy 
decimam dederis, non solum abundantiam fructum recipies, 
sed etiam sanitatem corporis et animce consequent, That 

28 is to saye, If thou haue gyuen thy tythes truely, thou 
shalte not onely receyue the profite, and the abundaunce 


31. How to cover corn. 

of goodes, but also helthe of bodye and soule shall 
folowe. Wolde to god, that euerye man knewe the 
32 harde worde of our lorde by his prophete Malachias, 
and also the comfortable wordes of the holy saynte 
Austyn. For than wolde I truste verely, that tythes 
shulde be truely gyuen. 

How to 
cover corn. 

[Fol. 233.] 

Set ten 
sheaves to- 

For peas 
and beans 
set three 

31. % Howe all maner of come shulde be couered. 

Nowe these comes be shorne and bounden, and the 
tithes cast out, it is tyme to couer theym, shoke theym, 
or halfe-throne them, but couerynge is the beste waye 

4 of all maner of whyte corne. And that is, to set foure 
sheues on one syde, and .iiii. sheues on the other syde, 
and two sheues aboue, of the greatteste, bounden harde 
nyghe to the nether ende, the whiche must be set vpwarde, 
8 and the top downewarde spredde abrode to couer all the 
other sheues. And they wyll sta«d beste in wynde, and 
saue theym-selfe beste in rayne, and they wolde be set 
on the rydge of the lande, and the sayde sheues to leane 

12 to-gether in the toppes, and wyde at the grounde, that 
the winde may go through, to drye them. Pees and 
beanes wolde be set on the rydge of the lande, thre 
sheues together, the toppes vpwarde, and wrythen to- 

16 gether, and wyde benethe, that they maye the better 

To load 

Make many 
mows, if it 
be wet. 

32. % To lode corne, and mowe it. 

Whanne all these cornes be drye and wyddred ynoughe, 
than lode theym in-to the barne, and laye euerye corne 
by it-selfe. And if be a wete haruest, make many mowes : 
4 and if thou haue not housynge ynoughe, thanne it is 
better to laye thy pees and benes without vppon a reke, 
than other corne, and it is better vppon a scaffolde than 
vppon the grounde : for than it muste be well hedged 

33. Tlie second stirring. 39 

8 for swyne an d catel, and the grounde wyll rotte the [FoL 24.] 
bottom, and the scaffolde saueth both hedgynge and 
rottynge : but they must be well couered bothe. And the 
husband may set shepe or catel vnder the same scaffold Thescaffoid. 
1 2 and wyll serue hym in stede of an house, if it be well 
and surely made, &c. 

33. \ The second 1 sturrynge. 
In August, and in the begynnyng of September, is Au &"s'- 


tyme to make his seconde sturrynge, and most commonly ^ 

it is cast downe and plowed a meane forowe, not to depe 
4 nor to ebbe, so he turne it clene. And if it be caste, it 

wolde be water-forowed bytwene the landes, there-as f^ow t he 
the reane shuide be, and it wyll be the dryer, whan the " ' 
lande shall be sowen. And if the landes lie high in 
8 the ridge, & highe at the reane, & lowe in the 
myddes of the side, that the water may not ronne easely 
in-to the reane, as I se dayly in many places : than let 
the husband set his plough .iii. or .iiii. fote frowz the 

12 rydge, and cast all the rydge on bothe sydes, and whan ridge it°up. 
the rydge is cast, set his plough there-as he began, and 
rydge vp the remenant of the lande, and so is the land 
bothe cast and rydged, and all at one plowynge. And this 

1 6 shall cause the lande to lye rounde, whan it is sowen t Fo1 - *4*-3 
at the nexte tyme, and than shall it not drowne the corne. 

34. %f To sowe wheat and rye. 

Aboute Myghelmasse it is tyme to sowe bothe wheate mas. ae " 
and rye. Wheate is mooste commonlye sowen vnder the So 7 wheat 

* * and rye. 

forowe, that is to saye, caste it vppon the falowe, and 
4 than plowe it vnder. And in some places they sowe theyr 

wheate vppon theyr pees-stubble, the whiche is neuer yJJ* 8 stub " 
soo good, as that that is sowen vppon the falowe : and 
that is vsed, where they make falowe in a fyelde euery 
1 Misprinted fyrst. 


34. How to sow wheat and rye. 

In Essex a 

He ought to 
have much 

Sow 2 
bushels to 

[Fol. 25.] 

"Wheat and 
rye mixed. 




Red wheat. 


[Fol. 25*.] 

8 fourthe yere. And in Essex they vse to haue a chylde, 
to go in the forowe before the horses or oxen, with a 
bagge or a hopper full of corne : and he taketh his hande 
full of corne, and by lyttel and lytel casteth it in the 

12 sayde forowe. Me semeth, that chylde oughte to haue 
moche dyscretion. 

Howe-be-it there is moche good corne, and rye is 
mooste commonlye sowen aboue and harrowed, and two 

16 London busshelles of wheate and rye wyll sowe an acre. 
Some grounde is good for wheate, some for rye, and 
some is good for bothe : and vppon that ground sowe 
blend-corne, that is both wheate and rye, the whyche is 

20 the surest corne of growyng, and good for the husbandes 
houshold. And the wheate, that shall be medled with 
rye, muste be suche as wyll soone be rype, and that is 
flaxen wheate, polerd wheate, or whyte wheate. And ye 

24 shall vnderstande, that there be dyuers maners of wheates. 
Flaxen wheate hath a yelowe eare, and bare without anis, 
and is the bryghtest wheate in the busshell, and wyll 
make the whytest breed, and it wyll weare the grounde 

28 sore, and is small strawe, and wyll growe very thycke, 
and is but small corne. Polerde wheate hath noo anis, 
thycke sette in the eare, and wyll soone fall out, and is 
greatter corne, and wyll make whyte breed. Whyte 

32 wheate is lyke polerde wheate in the busshell, but it 
hath anis, and the eare is foure-square, and wyll make 
white breed : and in Essex they call flaxen wheate 
whyte wheate. Red wheate hath a flat eare, an inche 

36 brode, full of anis, and is the greatteste corne, and 
the brodeste blades, and the greatteste strawe, and 
wyl make whyte breed, and is the rudeste of colour 
in the busshell. 

40 Englysshe wheate hath a dunne eare, fewe anis or none, 
and is the worste wheate, saue peeke-wheate. Peeke- 
wheete hath a red eare, ful of anis, thyn set, and ofte 
tymes it is flyntered, that is to saye, small corne wrynkeled 

35. How to thresh and winnow corn. 41 

44 and dryed, and wyll not make whyte breade, but it wyl 
growe vpon colde grounde. 

35. \ To thresshe and wynowe come. 
This wheate and rye, that thou shalte sowe, ought to Cgeftdfrj 
be very cleane of wede, and therfore, er thou thresshe corn - 
thy corne, open thy sheues, and pyke oute all maner of 
4 wedes, and than thresshe it, and wynowe it cleane, 
and so shalt thou haue good clene corne an other 
yere. And in some countreys, aboute London specyallye, ^ e nt S t " e and 
and in Essex and Kente, they do fan theyr corne, the fanthecorn - 
8 whiche is a verye good gise, and a great saueguarde for 
shedynge of the corne. And whan thou shalte sell it, 
if it be well wynowed or fande, it wyll be solde the 
derer, and the lyghte corne wyll serue the husbande in 
12 his house. 

36. *[ To seuer pees, beanes, and fytches. 
Whan thou haste thresshed thy pees, and beanes, Sift your 

*. r peas and 

after they be wynowed, and er thou shalte sowe or selle beans - 
them, let theym be well reed with syues, and seuered in 
4 thre partes, the great from the small, and thou shalte gette [Foi. 26.] 
in euerye quarter a London busshell, or there about. For 
the small corne lyeth in the holowe and voyde places of Separate 

small from 

the greate beanes, and yet shall the greate beanes be solde lar s e - 
8 as dere, as if they were all together, or derer, as a man 
may proue by a famylier ensample. Let a man bye 
.C. hearynges, 1 two hearynges for a penye, and an other i 2 oherrings, 
•C. hearynges, thre for a peny, and let hym sell these cost 5 ao- ' 
1 2 .CC. hearinges agayne .v. heringes for .ii. d. ; nowe hath 
he loste .iiii. d. For C. hearinges, .ii. for i. d., cost v. s., 
and C. hearynges, .iii. for a peny, coste .iii s. and .iiii d., "ohemngs, 

at 3a penny, 

the whiche is .viii. s and .iiii. d. ; and whan he selleth cost 3 s - v*- ; 

or 8*. $d. in 

16 .v. herynges for .ii. d., xx. heringes cometh but aU - 

1 Note that the symbol "C." here does not mean 100, but the great 
hundred, i.e. 120. 


37. Of sheep. 

20 herrings, to .viii. d. and there is but .xii. score herin°fes, and that 

at 5 for 2d., ° ' 

times 8 !' ' " * s ^ ut -X "* g rotes > an d xii. grotes, and that cometh but to 
much are 24 #v jjj S- anc [ so ^ e h at h \ os i jjjj d, an( ] it is bicause there be 

groats, or 

** not so many bargeins, for in the bienge of these .CC. 
heringes there be .v. score bargeins, and in the sellinge 
of the same there be but .xlviii. bargeyns, and so is 
there lost .x. hearinges, the whiche wolde haue ben .ii. 
bargeyns moo, and than it had ben euen and mete. And 
therfore he that byeth grosse sale, and retayleth, muste 
nedes be a wynner. And so shalt thou be a loser, if 
thou sell thy pees, beanes, and fytches together : for than 
[Foi. 263.] 28 thou sellest grosse sale. And if thou seuer them in thre 
partes, than thou doest retayle, wherby thou shake wynne. 


Always buy 24. 
by gross 
sale, and 
sell by retail. 

Sheep are 
the most 

Rams and 

Sept. 14. 
[Fol. 27.] 

37. % Of shepe, and what tyme of the yere the rammes 
shulde be put to the ewes. 

AN housbande can not well thryue by his come, 
without he haue other cattell, nor by his cattell, with- 
out come. For els he shall be a byer, a borower, or 
4 a begger. And bycause that shepe in myne opynyon is 
the mooste profytablest cattell that any man can haue, 
therfore I pourpose to speake fyrst of shepe. Than 
fyrst is to be knowen, what tyme thou shalt put thy 
8 rammes to thy ewes ; and therin I make a distinction, for 
euery man maye not put to theyr rammes all at one 
tyme ; for if they doo, there wyll be greate hurte and 
losse ; for that man, that hath the best shepe-pasture for 
12 wynter, and soone spryngynge in the begynnynge of the 
yere, he maye suffre his rammes to goo with his ewes 
all tymes of the yere, to blyssomme or ryde whan they 
wyll : but for the comon pasture, it is tyme to put to his 
16 rammes at the Exaltation of the holye crosse : for than 
the bucke goth to the rut, and so wolde the rawzme. 
But for the common husbande, that hath noo pasture but 
the common fieldes, it is tyme ynoughe at the feste of 

38. Ewes and tJieir lambs. 43 

20 saynt Mychaell the archangel. And for the poore Sept. 29. 
housbande of the Peeke, or suche other, that dwell in 
hylly and hyghe groundes, that haue no pastures, nor 
common fieldes, but all-onely the comon hethe, Symon 

24 and Jude daye is good tyme for theym, and this is the Oct. 28. 
reason why. An ewe goth with lambe .xx. wekes, and 
shall yeane her lambe in the .xxi. weke ; & if she haue 
not conueniente newe grasse to eate, she maye not gyue 

28 her lambe mylke : and for wante of mylke, there be 
manye lambes perysshed and loste : and also for pouertye, 
the dammes wyll lacke mylke, and forsake theyr lambes, 
and soo often tymes they dye bothe in suche harde 

32 countreys. 

38. «[ To make an ewe to lone her lambe. 

If thy ewe haue mylke, and wyll not loue her lambe, 
put her in a narowe place made of bordes, or of smothe 
trouse, a yarde wyde, and put the lambe to her, and 
4 socle it, and yf the ewe smyte the lambe with her H 
heed, bynd her heed with a heye-rope, or a corde, to [Fo!.2 7 j.] 
the syde of the penne : and if she wyl not stande g£g ^f e r 
syde longe all the lambe, 1 than gyue her a lyttell hey, herhead - 
8 and tye a dogge by her, that she maye se hym : and 
this wyll make her to loue her lambe shortely. And 
if thou haue a lambe deed, wherof the damme hath 
moche mylke, fley that lambe, and tye that skynne vpon p„t a dead 

12 an other lambes backe, that hath a sory damme, with on^iive" 11 
lyttell mylke, and put the good ewe and that lambe to- cha'nge'te ° 
gether in the penne, and in one houre she wyll loue d * m " 
that lambe ; & than mayst thou take thy sory weyke 

16 ewe awaye, and put her in an other place: and by this 
meanes thou mayste fortune to saue her lyfe, and the 
lambes bothe. 

a ewe 


1 Printed ewe, which gives no sense. 

44 39. WJien to wean lambs. 

39. % What tyme lambes shulde be wayned. 

In some places they neuer seuer their lambes from 
theyr dammes, and that is for two causes : One is, in 
the beste pasture where the rammes goo alwaye with 

I astures est 4 trie y r ewes, there it nedeth not, for the dammes wil 

themselves! 1 waxe drye, and wayne theyr lambes theym-selfe. An 
other cause is, he that hath noo seuerall and sounde 

[Foi.28.] pasture, to put his lambes vnto whan they shoulde be 

. 8 wayned, he muste eyther sell them, or let them sucke 

as longe as the dammes wyll suffre theym ; and it is 

a common sayinge, that the lambe shall not rotte, as 

longe as it souketh, excepte the damme wante meate. 

Lambs to be I2 But he that hath seueral and sounde pasture, it is tyme 

weaned at r * 

16 weeks, or to wayne theyr lambes, whanne they be .xvi. wekes 

old, or .xviii. at the farthest, and the better shall the 

ewe take the ramme agayne. And the poore man of 

16 the peeke countreye, and suche other places, where as 

they vse to mylke theyr ewes, they vse to wayne theyr 

in the Peak, lambes at xii. wekes olde, and to mylke theyr ewes 

lambs are 

weaned at flue or syxe wekes, &c. But those lambes be neuer 

12 weeks. ' 

20 soo good as the other that sucke longe, and haue 
meate ynoughe. 

40. % To drawe shepe, and seuer them in dyuers places. 

Than thou grasier, that hast many shepe in thy 
Have a pastures, it is conuenient for the to haue a shepefolde 

large sheep- 

fold; made with a good hedge or a pale, the whiche wyll 

4 receyue all thy shepe easyly that goo in one pasture, 

sette betwene two of thy pastures, in a drye place ; 

[Foi.28*.] and adioynynge to the ende of the same, make an 

another to other lyttell folde, that wyll receyue lxxxx. shepe or 

hold 90 ' 

sheep; 8 moo, and bothe those foldes muste haue eyther of 

theym a gate in-to eyther pasture, and at the ende 
of that folde make an other lyttell folde, that wyll 

for 40 sheep. receyue .xl. shepe or mo, and betwene euery folde a 

41. How to belt sJieep. 45 

12 gate. And whan the shepe are in the greate folde, 
let .xl. of them, or there about, come into the myddle 
folde, and steke the gate. And than let the shepeherde Let the 


turne them, and loke them on euery syde, and if he se examine 

J ' them in the 

16 or fynde any shepe, that nedeth any helpynge or mend- middle fold, 
inge for any cause, lette the shepeherde take that shepe 
with his hoke, and put hym in the lyttell folde. And 
whan he hath taken all that nedeth any mendyng, than 

20 put the other in-to whether pasture he wyll, and let in as 

many out of the greate folde, and take those that nede Pat the "sick 

ones in the 

any handling, and put them into the lyttell folde. And ^"le fold, 
thus peruse them all tyll he haue doone, and than let the 
24 shepeherde go belte, grese, and handel all those that he 
hath drawen, and than shall not the great flocke be taryed 
nor kepte from theyr meate : and as he hath mended 
them, to put them into theyr pasture. 

41. «[ To belte shepe. 
If any shepe raye or be fyled with dounge about the [F°i- *9-] 
the tayle, take a payre of sheres and clyppe it awaye, and How to belt 
cast dry muldes thervpon : and if it be in the heate of the 
4 sommer, it wolde be rubbed euer with a lyttell terre, to 
kepe awaye the flyes. It is necessarye that a shepeherde ^ avea 
haue a borde, set fast to the svde of his lyttell folde, to a shee P 

* * upon. 

laye his shepe vpon when he handeleth theym, and an 
8 hole bored in the borde with an augur, and therin a 
grayned staffe of two fote longe, to be set fast, to hang 
his terre-boxe vpon, and than it shall not fall. And a A shepherd 

, , wants a dog, 

shepeherde shoulde not go without his dogge, his shepe- » hook, 

shears, and 

1 2 hoke, a payre of sheres, and his terre-boxe, eyther with a tar-box. 
hym, or redye at his shepe-folde, and he muste teche his 
dogge to barke whan he wolde haue hym, to ronne whan 
he wold haue hym, and to leue ronning whan he wolde 

16 haue hym ; or els he is not a cunninge shepeherd. The 
dogge must lerne it, whan he is a whelpe, or els it wyl 
not be : for it is harde to make an olde dogge to stoupe. 


42. How to grease sheep. 

How to 



[Fol. 2 9 4.] 

Part the 
wool and put 
ta; on. 

42. f To grease shepe. 

If any sheepe be scabbed, the shepeherde maye per- 
ceyue it by the bytynge, rubbyng, or scratchynge with 
his home, and mooste commonly the woll wyll ryse, and 

4 be thyn or bare in that place : than take hym, and shede 
the woll with thy fyngers, there as the scab is, and with 
thy fynger laye a lyttell terre thervpon, and stroke it a 
lengthe in the bottom of the woll, that it be not seen 

8 aboue. And so shede the woll by and by, and laye a 
lyttell terre thervppon, tyll thou passe the sore, and than 
it wyll go no farther. 

How to mix 

43. f To medle terre. 

Let thy terre be medled with oyle, gose-grease, or 
capons grease, these three be the beste, for these wyll 
make the terre to ronne abrode : butter and swynes grease, 
4 whan they be molten, are good, soo they be not salte ; for 
terre of hym-selfe is to kene, and is a fretter, and no 
healer, without it be medled with some of these. 

44. \ To make brome salue. 

\ A medicyne to salue poore mennes shepe, that thynke 

terre to costely : but I doubte not, but and ryche men 

[Foi. 30.] knowe it, they wolde vse the same. Take a shete ful of 

Chopbroom 4. brome, croppes, leaues, blossomes, and all, and chop 

small, and 

boil it; them very smal, and than sethe them in a pan of .xx. 

gallons with rennynge water, tyll it begyn to waxe thycke 
like a gelly, than take two pounde of shepe suet molten, 

add suet and 8 and a pottell of olde pysse, and as moche bryne made 
with salte, and put all in-to the sayde panne, and styrre it 
aboute, and than streyne it thorowe an olde clothe, and 
putte it in-to what vessell ye wyll, and yf your shepe be 

use it warm 1 2 newe clypped, make it luke-warme, and than washe your 

with a Jl f ' 

sponge. shepe there-with, with a sponge or a pece of an olde 

mantell, or of faldynge, or suche a softe cloth or woll, 

45. Maggots in sJieep. 47 

for spendynge to moche of your salue. And at all tymes it can be 
16 of the yere after, ye may relent it, and nede require : and *»»«• 
make wyde sheydes in the woll of the shepe, and anoynt 
them with it, & it shal heale the scabbe, and kyll the 
shepe-lyce, and it shall not hurte the woll in the sale 
20 therof. And those that be washen wyll not take scabbe 
after (if they haue sufficient meate) ; for that is the beste 
grease that is to a shepe, to grease hym in the mouthe 
with good meate ; the whiche is also a greate saueguarde 
24 to the shepe for rottynge, excepte there come myldewes, P°° d meat h 
for he wyl chose the beste, if he haue plentye. And [Foi. 30*.] 
he that hath but a fewe shepe moderate this medicyne grease for 



45. \ If a shepe haue mathes. 

If a shepe haue mathes, ye shall perceyue it by her Maggots in 
bytynge, or fyskynge, or shakyng of her tayle, and mooste 
commonlye it is moyst and wete : and if it be nyghe vnto 

4 the tayle, it is ofte tymes grene, and fyled with his 

dounge : and than the shepeherde muste take a payre How cured, 
of sheres, and clyppe awaye the woll bare to the skynne, 
and take a handfull of drye moldes, and cast the moldes 

8 thervpon to drye vp the wete, and then wype the muldes 
away, and lay terre there as the mathes were, and a lyttell 
farther. And thus loke theym euery daye, and mende 
theym, if they haue nede. 

46. f Blyndenes of shepe, and other dyseases, and 
remedies therfore. 

There be some shepe that wyll be blynd a season, and Blindness in 


yet mende agayn. And if thou put a lytel terre in his eye, 
he will mende the rather. There be dyuers waters, & 
4 other medicyns, that wolde mende hym, but this isr.F0i.31.] 
[the] mooste common medicyne that shepeherdes vse. 

4 8 

47. Worm in a sheefts foot. 

Worms in a 
sheep's foot. 

47. <[[ The worme in the shepes fote, and helpe therfore. 

There be some shepe, that hath a worme in his foote, 
that maketh hym halte. Take that shepe, and loke be- 
twene his clese, and there is a lyttell hole, as moche as a 
4 greatte pynnes heed, and therin groweth fyue or syxe 
blacke heares, lyke an inche long and more ; take a sharpe 
poynted knyfe, and slytte the skynne a quarter of an inche 
long aboue the hole and as moche benethe, and put thy 
How cured. 8 one hande in the holowe of the fote, vnder the hynder 
clese, and set thy thombe aboue almooste at the slytte, 
and thruste thy fyngers vnderneth forward, and with thy 
other hand take the blacke heares by the ende, or with 

12 thy knyues poynte, and pull the heares a lyttell and a 
lyttell, and thruste after thy other hande, with thy fynger 
and thy thombe, and there wyll come oute a worme lyke 
a pece of fleshe, nygh as moche as a lyttel fynger. And 

1 6 whan it is out, put a lyttel tarre into the hole, and it wyll 
be shortely hole. 

[Fol. 31*.] 

' The blood' 
in sheep. 

Cut off the 
sheep's ears. 

48. f The blode, and remedy if one come betyme. 

There is a sicknes amo«g shepe, and is called the 

bloude ; that shepe, that hath that, wil dye sodeinly, and 

er he dye, he wil stande stil, and hange downe the heed, 

4 & other-while quake. If the shepeherde can espye 

hym, let him take and rubbe hym about the heed, & 

specyally about his eares, and vnder his eyen, & with 

a knyfe cut of his eares in the middes, & also let hym 

8 blode in a veyne vnder his eien : and if he blede wel, 

he is lyke to lyue ; and if he blede not, than kil him, and 

saue his fleshe. For if he dye by hym-selfe, the flesshe is 

loste, and the skyn wyll be ferre ruddyer, lyke blode, 

12 more than an other skynne shall be. And it taketh 

mooste commonly the fattest and best lykynge. 

49. Pocks in sheep. 49 

49. % The pockes, and remedy therfore. 
The pockes appere vppon the skyn, and are lyke reed P° c e ks ! ° 
pymples, as brode as a farthynge, and therof wyll dye 
many. And the remedy therfore is, to handle all thy 

4 shepe, and to loke on euery parte of theyr bodyes : and 

as many as ye fynde taken therwith, put them in fresshe [Foi. 32.] 
newe grasse, and kepe them fro theyr felowes, and to 
loke thy flocke ofte, and drawe theym as they nede. And 

8 if it be in sommer tyme, that there be no froste, than 

washe them. Howe be it some shepeherdes haue other Wash them. 

50. *[ The wode euyll, and remedy therfore. 
There is a sickenes among shepe, and is called the 
wode euyll, and that cometh in the spiynge of the yere, ! w ° od - evi1 ' 
and takethe them moste commonly in the legges, or in 
4 the necke, and maketh them to halt, and to holde theyr 
necke awry. And the mooste parte that haue that sick- 
nes, wyl dye shortely in a day or two. The best remedy is, 
to wasshe theym a lyttell, and to chaunge theyr grounde, Wash them 
8 and to bryng them to lowe grounde and freshe grasse. their 


And that sycknes is moste commonly on hylly grounde, 
ley grounde, and ferny grounde, And some men vse to let 
them bloudde vnder the eye in a vaine for the same cause. 

51. % To washe shepe. 
In June is tyme to shere shepe, and er they be shorne, Wash and 

shear sheep 

they muste be very well wasshen, the whiche shall be to »> June. 

the owner great profyte in the sale of his woll, and also to [Foi. 32*.] 
4 the clothe-maker ; but yet beware, that thou put not to many 

shepe in a penne at one tyme, neyther at the washyng, 

nor at the sheryng, for feare of murtheryng or ouer-press- 

yng of their felowes, and that none go awaye, tyll he be 
8 cleane washen, and se that they that hold the shepe by 

the heed in the water, holde his heed hye ynoughe for 



52. How to shear sheep. 

How to 
shear sheep. 

Mark them 

52. ^f To shere shepe. 

Take hede of. the sherers, for touchynge the shepe with 
the sheres, and specially for pryckyng with the poynte of 
the sheres, and that the shepeherde be alway redy with 

4 his tarboxe to salue them. And se that they be well 
marked, bothe eare-marke, pitche-marke, and radel- 
marke, and let the wol be well folden or wounden with 
a woll-wynder, that can good skyll therof, the whiche shal 

8 do moche good in the sale of the same. 

the sheep in- 
to flocks. 

53. *J To drawe and setter the badde shepe from the good. 

Whan thou haste all shorne thy shepe, it is than best 

tyme to drawe them, and soo seuer theym in dyuers sortes ; 

[Foi. 33.] the shepe that thou wylte fede by them-selfe, the ewes by 

4 theym-selfe, the share-hogges and theyues by them-selfe, 

the lambes by theym-selfe, wedders and the rammes by 

them-self, if thou haue soo many pastures for them : for 

the byggest wyll beate the weikeste with his heed. And of 

onekinf ° f " euery sort of shepe, it may fortune there be some, that 

together. ]ik e no t an( j be weike ; those wolde be put in freshe 

grasse by theym-selfe : and whan they be a lyttel mended, 

than sel them, and ofte chaunge of grasse shal mend all 

12 maner of cattell. 

Spear- wort. 


54. fZr What thynges rotteth shepe. 

It is necessary that a shepeherde shoulde knowe what 
thynge rotteth shepe, that he myght kepe them the 
better. Ther is a grasse called sperewort, and hath a 

4 long narowe leafe, lyke a spere-heed, and it wyll growe 
a fote hyghe, and beareth a yelowe floure, as brode as a 
peny, and it growethe alwaye in lowe places where the 
water is vsed to stande in wynter. An other grasse is 

8 called peny-grasse, and groweth lowe by the erthe in a 
marsshe grounde, and hath a leafe as brode as a peny of 

55. How to know rotten sheep. 51 

two pens, and neuer beareth floure. All maner of grasse, 
that the lande-floudde renneth ouer, is verye ylle for [Foi. 33*.] 
12 shepe, bycause of the sande and fylthe that stycketh 

vppon it. All marreys grounde, and marsche grounde is Marshy 

ground is 

yll for shepe ; the grasse that groweth vppon falowes is bad. 
not good for shepe ; for there is moche of it wede, and 

1 6 ofte tymes it commeth vppe by the rote, and that bryng- 

eth erthe with it, and they eate both, &c. Myldewe- Mildew, 
grasse is not good for shepe, and that ye shall knowe two 
wayes. One is by the leaues on the trees in the morn- 

20 ynge, and spccyally of okes ; take the leaues, and putte 
thy tonge to them, and thou shalt fele lyke hony vppon 
them. And also there wyll be many kelles vppon the 
grasse, and that causeth the myldewe. Wherfore they 

24 may not well be let out of the folde tyll the sonne haue 

domynation to drye them awaye. Also hunger-rotte is Hunger- 
the worst rotte that can be, for there is neither good r ° 
flesshe nor good skynne, and that cometh for lacke of 

28 meate, and so for hunger they eate suche as they can 
fynde : and so will not pasture-shepe, for they selden 
rot but with myldewes, and than wyll they haue moch 
talowe and fleshe, and a good skyn. Also white snailes white 

32 be yll for shepe in pastures, and in falowes. There snails " 
is an other rotte, whiche is called pelte-rotte, and that Pelt-rot. 
commeth of greatte wete, specyally in woode countreyes, [Foi. 34 .] 
where they can not drye. 

55. \ To knowe a rotten shepe dyners maner wayes, 
wherof some of them wyll not fayle. 

Take bothe your handes, and twyrle vpon his eye, and How to 
if he be ruddy, and haue reed stryndes in the white of rou^n sheep, 
the eye, than he is sounde ; and if the eye be white, lyke 
4 talowe, and the stryndes darke-coloured, thanne he is 
rotten. And also take the shepe, and open the wolle 
on the syde, and yf the skynne be of ruddy colour and 


56. How to buy lean cattle. 

have loose 

drye, than is he sounde ; and if it be pale-coloured, and 

8 watrye, thanne is he rotten. Also whanne ye haue 

opened the woll on the syde, take a lyttell of the woll 

bytwene thy fynger and thy thombe, and pull it a lyttell, 

and if it sticke faste, he is sounde, and if it comme 

12 lyghtely of, he is rotten. Also whan thou haste kylde a 

shepe, his belly wyll be full of water, if he be sore 

rotten, and also the fatte of the fleshe wyll be yelowe, 

if he be rotten. And also if thou cut the lyuer, therin 

Rotten 1 6 wyll be lyttell quikens lyke flokes, and also the lyuer 

sheep have 

flukes in the wyll be full of knottes and whyte blysters, yf he be 
[Foi. 34ft.] rotten ; and also sethe the lyuer, if he be rotten it wyll 

breke in peces, and if he be sounde, it wyll holde 
20 together. 

How to buy 

56. f To bye leane cattell. 

These housbandes, if they shall well thryue, they 
muste haue bothe kye, oxen, horses, mares, and yonge 
cattell, and to rere and brede euery yere some calues, 
How to buy 4 and fools, or els shall he be a byer. And yf thou shalte 
by oxen for the ploughe, se that they be yonge, and 
not gowty, nor broken of heare, neyther of tayle, nor 
of pysell. And yf thou bye kye to the payle, se that 
8 they be yonge and good to mylke, and fede her calues 
wel. And if thou bye kye or oxen to feede, the yonger 
they be, the rather they wyll fede ; but loke well, that 
the heare stare not, and that he lycke hym-selfe, and 
12 be hoole-mouthed, and want no tethe. And thoughe he 
haue the goute and be broken, bothe of tayle and 
pysell, yet wyll he fede. But the gouty oxe wyll not 
be dryuen ferre ; and se that he haue a brode ryb, and 
1 6 a thycke hyde, and to be lose-skinned, that it stycke not 
harde nor streyte to his rybbes, for than he wyll not fede. 

How to 

choose an 

57. How to buy fat cattle. 53 

57. f To bye fatte cattell. . [Foi. 35] 

If thou shalte bye fatte oxen or kye, handel them, h° w to , bu >- 

' J fat cattle. 

and se that they be soft on the fore-croppe, behynde 
the shulder, and vpon the hindermost rybbe, and upon 
4 the hucbone, and the nache by the tayle. And se 
the oxe haue a greate codde, and the cowe great 
nauyll, for than it shulde seme that they shuld be wel 
talowed. And take hede, where thou byeste any leane See where, 

J • and of 

8 cattel or fat, and of whom, and where it was bred. For whom >y° u 


if thou by out of a better grouwd than thou haste thy- 
selfe, that cattell wyll not lyke with the. And also 
loke, that there be no maner of sycknes amonge the 
12 cattell in that towneshyp or pasture that thou byest thy 
catel oute of. For if there be any murren or longe 
sought, it is great ieoperdy : for a beast maye take syck- 
nes ten or .xii. dayes or more, ere it appere on hym. 

58. \ Dyuers sycnesses of cattell, and remedies 
therfore, and fyrst of murren. 
And yf it fortune to fall murren amonge thy beastes, Murrain, 
as god forbede, there be men ynough can helpe them. 
And it commeth of a ranknes of bloudde, and appereth [ Fo1 - 35*0 
4 moste commonly fyrste in the heed ; for his heed wyll 
swell, and his eyen waxe greate and ronne of water 
and frothe at the mouthe, and than he is paste remedy, 
and wyl dye shortely, and wyll neuer eate after he be 
8 sycke. Than flee him, and make a depe pytte faste by, Fla y the 

K r J J ' dead beast, 

there as he dyeth, and caste hym in, and couer hym with andb "ryit. 
erthe, that noo dogges may come to the caryen. For as 
many beastes as feleth the smelle of that caryen, are 

12 lykely to be enfecte; and take the skynne, and haue it 
to the tanners to sell, and bryng it not home, for peryll 
that may fal. And it is commonly vsed, and cometh of 
a greate charytie, to take the bare heed of the same beaste £L?*head, 

16 and put vpon a longe pole, and set it in a hedge, faste the a hedge. m 


59. Tie sickness called ' long sought' 

bounden to a stake, by the hyghe-waye syde, that euerye 
man, that rydethe or goeth that waye, maye se and knowe 
by that signe, that there is sycknes of cattell in the towne- 
20 shyp. And the husbandes holde an opynyon, that it shall 
the rather cease. And whanne the beaste is flaine, there 
as the murren dothe appere bytwene the flesshe and the 
skynne, it wyll ryse vppe lyke a ielly and frothe an inche 
Remedy for 24 depe or more. And this is the remedy for the murren. 

murrain. * J 

Take a smalle curteyne-corde, and bynde it harde aboute 
the beastes necke, and that wyll cause the bloudde to 
come in-to the necke, and on eyther syde of the necke 

28 there is a vayne that a man may fele with his fynger; and 
than take a bloud-yren, and set it streight vppon the 
vayne, and smyte him bloudde on bothe sydes, and let 
hym blede the mountenaunce of a pynte or nyghe it, and 

32 than take awaye the corde, and it wyll staunche bleding. 
And thus serue all thy cattell, that be in that close or 
pasture, and there shall no mo be sicke, by goddes leue. 

[Fol. 36.] 

Bleed the 
sick cattle 


The beast 
coughs 20 
times an 

[Fol. 3 65.] 

Cut the 

59. f Longe sought, and remedy therefore. 

There is an nother maner of sycknesse among bestes, 
and it is called longe soughte ; and that sickenes wyl 
endure lo«g, and ye shal perceyue it by his hoystynge ; 

4 he wyl stande moche, and eate but a littel, and waxe very 
holowe &thin. And he wil hoyst .xx. times in an houre, 
and but fewe of them do mende. The best remedy is to 
kepe thy cattell in sondrye places, and as many as were 

8 in companye with that beast that fyrst fell sycke, to let 
them a lyttel bloude. And there be many men, that can 
seuer them, and that is to cutte the dewlappe before, and 
there is a grasse that is called feitergrasse, take that 
1 2 grasse, and broyse it a lyttell in a morter, and thanne put 
therof as moche as an hennes egge in-to the sayd dew- 
lappe, and se it fall not oute. Thus I have seen vsed, 
and men haue thought it hath done good. 

60. Tfie sickness called Dewbolne. 55 

60. \ Dewbolne, 1 and the harde remedy therfore. 
An other dysease amonge beastes is called dewbolne, 1 ' D , ew -. 

J ° bolne. 

and that commeth whan a hungry beaste is put in a^ • 
good pasture full of ranke grasse, he wyll eatesoo" 
4 moche that his sydes wyll stande as hygh as his backe- 
bone, and other-whyle the one syde more thanne the 
other, and but fewe of them wyll dye ; but he maye 
not be dryuen hastely, nor laboured, being so swollen, The beast is 

J swollen. 

8 and the substaunce of it is but wynde; and therfore 
he wolde be softly dryuen, and not sytte downe. Howe 
be it I haue seen a manne take a knyfe, and thruste hym Some men 
thorowe the skynne and the flesshe two inches depe, or hole in the 


12 more, vi. inches or more from the ridge-bone, that the 

wynde maye come out. For the wynde lyeth bytwene [Foi. 37.] 
the fleshe and the grete paunche. 

61. J Eysen vpon, and the remedy therfore. 
An other dysease is called rysen vppon, and no man 'Risen 


can tell howe, nor wherof it cometh : but ye shall per- 
ceyue that by swellynge in the heed, and specyallye by 
4 the eyen, for they wyll ronne on water, and close his The beast's 

* * eyes run. 

syght ; and wyll dye shortly within an houre or two, if 

he be not holpen. This is the cause of his dysease. 

There is a blyster rysen vnder the tounge, the whiche 

8 blyster must be slytte with a knyfe a-crosse. Whan ye 

haue pulled out the tongue, rubbe the blyster well with Find the 

blister under 

salte, and take an hennes egge, and breake it in the the tongue, 

00 and cut it. 

beastes mouthe shell and all, and cast salte to it, and 
12 holde vp the bestes heed, that all maye be swalowed 
downe into the body. But the breakynge of the blyster 
is the greate helpe, and dryue the beaste a lyttell aboute, 
and this shall saue hym, by the helpe of Jesu. 

1 Misprinted Dewbolue, dewbolue. 


62. The sickness called tJie Turn. 

[Fol. 37*.] 
' The turn.' 

There is a 
between the 
brain and 


Cut the 
bone, but 
not the 
brain, and 
take out the 



[Fol. 38.] 24 


62. O^r The turne, and remedy therfor. 

There be beastes that wyll turne about, whan they 
eate theyr meate, and wyll not fede, and is great 
ieoperdy for fallynge in pyttes, dyches, or waters : and 
it is bycause that there is a bladder in the foreheed 
bytwene the brayne-panne and the braynes, the whiche 
must be taken out, or els he shal neuer mende, but dye 
at lengthe, and this is the remedy and the greatest cure 
that can be on a beaste. Take that beast, and cast him 
downe, and bynde his foure fete together, and with thy 
thombe, thrust the beast in the foreheed, and where 
thou fyndest the softest place, there take a knyfe, and 
cut the skyn, three or foure inches on bothe sides 
bytwene the homes, and as moche benethe towarde 
the nose, and fley it, and turne it vp, and pyn it faste 
with a pyn, and with a knyfe cut the brayne-pan .ii. 
inches brode, and thre inches longe, but se the knyfe 
go no deper than the thycknes of the bone for peryssh- 
ynge of the brayne, and take away the bone, and than 
shalt thou se a bladder full of water two inches longe 
and more, take that out, and hurte not the brayne, and 
thanne let downe the skynne, and sowe it faste there 
as it was before, and bynde a clothe two or thre folde 
vpon his foreheed, to kepe it from colde and wete .x. or 
.xii. dayes. And thus haue I seen many mended. But 
if the beaste be fatte, and any reasonable meate vpon 
hym, it is best to kyll hym, for than there is but lyttell 
losse. And if the bladder be vnder the home, it is 
past cure. A shepe wyll haue the turne as well as a 
beast, but I haue seen none mended. 

' Warry- 

63. %Sr The warrybrede, and the remedy therfore. 

There be beastes that wyll haue warrybredes in dyuers 
partes of theyr body and legges, and this is the remedy. 
Cast hym downe, and bynde his foure fete together, and 

64. Remedy for tJie Foul. 57 

4 take a culture, or a payre of tonges, or such an other Take a hot 

iron, and 

yren, and take it glowing hote : and if it be a longe sear it. 
warrybrede, sere it of harde by the body, and if it be 
in the beginninge, and be but flatte, than lay the hot 
8 yren vpon it, and sere it to the bare skyn, and it will be 
hole for euer, be it horse or beast. 

64. \ The foule, and the remedy therfore. 
There be bestes, that wyll haue the foule, and that 'The foul.' 
is betwene the cleese, sometyme before, and sometyme 
behynde, and it wyll swell, and cause hym to halt, and [Foi. 38*.] 
4 this is the remedy. Cast hym downe and bind his foure 

fete together, & take a rope of heare, or a hey-rope, ^ ubaro P. e 
harde wrythen together, and put it betwene his cleese, £ la * s '"j 1 
and drawe the rope to and fro a good season, tyll he 
8 blede well, and than laye to it softe made terre, and 
binde a cloute aboute it, that noo myre nor grauell 
come betwene the clese : and put hym in a pasture, or 
let hym stande styll in the house, and he wyll be 
12 shortly hole. 

65. *| The goute, without remedy. 

There be beastes, that wyll haue the goute, and moste The gout, 
commonly in the hynder fete, and it wyll cause them to 
halt, and go starkely. And I knewe neuer manne that 
4 coulde helpe it, or fynde remedye therfore, but all-onely No remedy, 
to put hym in good grasse, and fede hym. 

66. \ To rere calues. 
It is conueniente for a housbande to rere calues, and To rear 


specyally those that come bytwene Candelmasse and 
Maye, for that season he may spare mylke beste ; and by 
4 that tyme the calfe shall be wayned, there wyll be grasse [] 
ynoughe to put hym vnto. And at winter he wyll be 
b}'gg e ynoughe to saue hym-selfe amonge other beastes, 


5 8 67. How to geld calves. 

with a lyttell fauoure. And the damme of the calfe shall 

8 bull agayne, and brynge an other by the same time of 

the yere : and if thou shalt tary tyll after May, the calfe 

wolde be weyke in wynter, and the damme wolde not 

bull agayne: but ofte tyme go bareyn. And if thou 

12 shalte rere a calfe that commeth after Myghelmasse, it 

wyll be costly to kepe the calfe all the wynter-season at 

hey, and the damme at harde meate in the house, as they 

vse in the playne champyon countrey. And a cowe shall 

A cow gives 1 6 gyue more mylke with a lyttell grasse and strawe, lyenge 

more milk ... 

on grass without in a close, thanne she shall doo with hey and 

than on hay. 

strawe, lyenge in an house ; for the harde meate dryeth 
vp the mylke. But he that hath no pasture, muste do as 

20 he may ; but yet is it better to the housbande to sell those 
calues than to rere them, bycause of the cost, and also 
for the profytte of the mylke to his house, and the rather 
the cowe wyll take the bull. If the husbande go with 

24 an oxe-plough, it is conuenient that he rere two oxe- 

calues and two cowe-calues at the least, to vpholde his 

flocke, and if he maye do moo, it wyll be more profyte. 

[Foi. 39,5.] And it is better, to wayne thy calues at grasse before. 

28 And that man, that maye haue a pasture for his kye, and 

an other for his calues, and water in them both, maye 

rere and brede good beastes with lyghte coste. And if 

Do not wean thou waine thy calues with hey, it wyl make them haue 

calves on ' ' ' 

hay. ^ 2 great belyes, and the rather they wyll rotte whan they 

come to grasse, and in wynter they wolde be put in a 

house by them-selfe, and gyuen hey on the pyghtes, and 

put in a good pasture on the day, and they shal be moche 

36 better to handell, whan they shal be kye or oxen. 

67. pr To gelde calues. 

To geld ox- It is tyme to gelde his oxen calues in the olde of the 

c (lives. 

mone, whan they be .x. or .xx. dayes olde, for than it is 

leaste ieoperdye, and the oxe shall be the more hyer, and 

4 the lenger of body, and the le«ger horned : and that maye 

68- Horses and inares for draught. 59 

be well prouyd, to take two oxe-calues, both of one kynde, 
of one makynge, and both of one age ; gelde one of 
them, and let the other goo forthe and be a bull, and 
8 put theym bothe in one pasture, tyll they be foure or a gelt calf 
fyue yere olde : and than shall ye se the oxe-calfe ferre bigger than 

* * * a bull. 

greatter euery wave than the bull ; there is noo cause but Pol. 40J 
the geldynge ; and yf thou gelde them not tyll they be 
12a yere olde, there is more ieopardye, he shall be lesse of 
bodye, and shorte-horned. 

63. * Horses and mares to drawe. 
A husbande maye not be withoute horses and mares, Horses and 

J mares. 

or bothe ; and specially, if he go with a horse-ploughe, he 
muste haue both his horses to drawe, and his mares to 
4 brynge coltes, to vpholde his flocke, and yet at manye 
tymes they maye drawe well, if they be well handled. 
But they maye not beare sackes, nor be rydden vppon 
noo iourneys whan they be with foole, and specyally 
8 whanne they haue gone with foole .xx. or .xxiiii. wekes, 

for than is the greateste ieopardy. For yf she be rydden Take care of 
vppon, and sette vp hotte, or tourned out and take cold, 
she wil caste her foole, the whiche woll be a greatte losse 

1 2 to the housbande. For she wyll labour and beare whan 
she hath fooled, and drawe whan she is with foole, as 
well as the horse. It is conuenient for the husbande to 
knowe, whanne his mare wolde be horsed. It is the 

16 common sayenge, that she wyll take the hors within .ix. or [Foi 404.] 
.x. dayes, nexte after that she hath fooled : but that saying 
I holde not with, for and she do so, she wyll not holde 
therto, for the hors dothe dryue her to it. But .xx. 

20 days after, is tymely ynoughe to brynge her to a hors. 
For she wyl not holde to it, excepte she be kene of hors- 
yng, and that shal ye knowe by her shap, for that wyll twyrle 
open, and close agayne, many tymes in an houre : and than 

24 brynge her to a hors, and let her be with hym a day or a 


68. Concerning colts and fillies. 

Keep the 
horse from 
the mares. 

Men have 
about foals 

I have 60 
horses my- 
[Fol. 41.] 

With men 
who speak 

a filly may 
be called a 
horse-foal ; 
and a colt 
may be 
called a 

nyght, and that is suffycyent. For it is better, to kepe 
the horse frome the mares, than to go with them, for 
dyuers causes, and specyaliy he shall be more lusty, and 

28 the moo horse-coltes shall he gete. But he that hath 
very many mares, may not alway attende them, but let 
them go to-gether, and take as god sendes it. Some 
men holde an opinion, that if the horse be put to the 

32 mare in the begynnynge of the moone, after it be prime, 
he shall gete a horse-foole. And some men saye the con- 
trary : that if he be putte to the mare in the olde of 
the mone, he shoulde gete horse-fooles. And I saye, 

36 it maketh noo matter, whether: for this cause I haue 
proued. I haue my selfe .lx. mares and more, able to 
beare the horse, and from Maye daye vnto saynte Bar- 
thylmewes daye, I have .v. or .vi. horses goynge with 

40 theym bothe daye and nyghte, and at the foolynge-tyme 
I haue vpon one daye a horse-fole, and on the nexte 
daye, or seconde, a mare-fole, and on the thirde or 
fourth day next after, a horse-fole agayne, and soo euery 

44 weke of bothe sortes, and by theyr opynyon or reason, 
I shulde haue .xiiii. dayes together horse-fooles, and 
other .xiiii. dayes together mare-foles. And me semethe, 
that those men that holde that opinyon, speke sophysty- 

48 callye ; that if soo be they layde any wagers thervppon, 
that they shoulde bothe wynne in theyr owne conceyte 
by this reason. Whether it were gette in the newe of 
the mone or in the olde of the mone, it is a horse-foole, 

52 bycause a horse gate it, though it be a felly-fole ; and it 
is a mare-fole, bycause a mare fooled it, thoughe it be 
a horse-colte. And so {Diuersis respectibus) theyr opyn- 
ions maye be trewe. But of one thynge I am certayne, 

56 that some one horse wyll gette more horse-fooles than 
other horse wyll doo, and lyke wyse a mare wyll beare moo 
mare-fooles than some other mare wyll do, thoughe they 
be horsed bothe with one horse. Me semeth there is 

69. Loss of a lamb, calf, or foal. 61 

60 no reason why, but the lustynes of the nature of bothe 

partes, whether of them shall haue the domination. [Foi. 41*.] 
But and ye haue mares of dyuers colours, than do as 
I do, seuer them in diuers parcels, and put to your 

6x white mares a grey horse, or a whyte horse that hath w* wl "te 

° J J mares put a 

noo whyte rathe in the foreheed ; and to your grey gray horse, 
mares a white horse, so that he be not al white-skynned 
aboute the mouthe. And to your mares of colour, that 

68 haue no white vpon them, a coloured horse that hath 
moch white on hym, and to your coloured mares of 
mayne whyte, a horse of colour of mayn whyte. And 
thus shal ye haue well coloured coltes. It maketh noo 

72 mater of what colour the horse be, soo he be neyther 

whyte nor grey. For if ye put a whyte horse to a Put not a 

white horse 

coloured mare, she shall haue moste comonly a sandy with a 


colte, lyke an yren-gray, neyther lyke syre nor damme, mare. 
76 Howe be it I haue seen and knowen many mares, that 
wyll haue theyr colte lyke the horse that gate it, the 
whiche is agaynste kynde of mares, for a manne maye 
rather gette one good horse than many good mares. 

69. pjr The losse of a lambe, a calfe, or a foole. 

It is lesse hurte to a man, to haue his cowe caste her 
calfe, thanne an ewe to caste her lambe. For the calfe 
wyll soucke as moche mylke, er it be able to kyll, as it [Foi. 42.] 
4 is worthe, and of the ewe commeth noo profytte of the 

mylke, but the lambe. Howe be it they vse in some Some men 

milk ewes, 

places to mylke theyr ewes, whan they haue wayned but it is a 


theyr lambes : but that is great hurte to the ewes, and 
8 wyll cause them, that they wyll not take the ramme at 
the tyme of the yere for pouertye, but goo barreyne. 
And if a mare caste her foole, that is thryse soo great A lost foal 
a losse, for if that foole be commen of good brede, as loss. 
12 it is necessary euery man to prouyde, for as moche 
costes and charges hath a badde mare as a good, in 


70. What cattle may feed together. 

shorte space the foole, with good kepynge, maye be solde 
15 for as moche money as wolde bye manycalues and lambes. 

Put beasts 
and horses 
in a pasture 

[Fol. 42*.] 

With 100 
beasts put 20 

Milch kine 
should not 
be too fat, 

but have a 



70. % What cattell shulde go to-gether in one pasture. 

Beastes alone, nor horses alone, nor shepe alone, 
excepte it be shepe vppon a verye hyghe grounde, wyll 
not eate a pasture euen, but leaue many tuftes and hygh 

4 grasse in dyuers places, excepte it be ouer-layde with 
cattell. Wherfore knowe that horses and beastes wyll 
agree well in oone pasture, for there is some maner of 
grasse that a horse x wyll eate, and the beast wyl 
8 not eate, as the fytches, flasshes, and lowe places, and 
all the holowe bunnes and pvpes that growe therin. But 
horses and shepe wyll not so well agree, excepte it be 
shepe to fede, for a shepe wyll go on a bare pasture, and 

12 wyll eate the sweteste grasse : and soo wyll ahorse, but he 
wolde haue it lenger. Howe be it he wyll eate as nyghe 
the erthe as a shepe, but he can not so sone fyll his 
belly. To an hundred beastes ye maye put .xx. horses, 

16 if it be lowe ground, and if there be grasse ynoughe, 
put in an hundred shepe, and so after the rate, be the 
pasture more or lesse. And after this maner they may 
fede and eate the close euen and leue but fewe tuftes. 

20 And if it be an hyghe grounde, put in moo shepe, 
and lesse bestes and horses. Melch kye, and draught 
oxen, wyll eate a close moche barer than as many fatte 
kye and oxen. And a melche cowe may haue to moch 

24 meate : for if she waxe fatte, she wyll the rather take 
the bull, and gyue lesse mylke. For the fatnes stoppeth 
the poores and the vaines, that shuld brynge the mylke 
to the pappes. And therfore meane grasse is beste 

28 to kepe her in a meane estate. And if a cowe be 
fatte, whan she shall calue, than is there great ieoperdy 
in her, and the calfe shall be the lesse : but ye can not 

1 Misprinted or horse ; but the catchwords are a horse. 

71. TJie 54 properties of Jiorses. 6$ 

gyue your draught-oxe to moche meate, excepte it be [Foi. 43.] 
32 the aftermath of a late mowen medowe. For that wyll 
cause hym to haue the gyrre, and than he maye not well 
laboure. And there be to moche errasse in a close, the To ° m . u ^ h , 

u grass is bad. 

cattel shall fede the worse, for a good bytte to the erthe 
36 is suffycyente. For if it be longe, the beaste wyll byte 
of the toppe and noo more, for that is swetest, and the 
other lyeth styll vppon the grounde and rotteth, and 
no beaste wyll eate it but horse in wynter; but these 
40 beastes, horses and shepe, maye not be fodered to-gether 

in wynter, for thanne they wolde be seuered : for els In winter, 

beasts will 

the beastes with thevr homes wyll put bothe horses s° re horses 

J and sheep. 

and the shepe, and gore them in theyr bellyes. And it 
44 is necessarye to make standynge cratches, to caste theyr 

fodder in, and the staues set nyghe ynough togyther, 

for pullynge theyr fodder to hastely out, for shedynge. 

And if it be layde vppon the erthe, the fourthe parte 
48 therof wyll be loste : and if ye laye it vpon the erthe, 

lave it euerye tyme in a newe place, for the olde wyll 

marre the newe. 

71. ^f The properties of horses. 
Thou grasyer, that mayst fortune to be of mvne f? oK +3*-] 

' J Grazier, be 

opynyon or condityon, to loue horses and yonge coltes ao \^ 
or foles to go amonge thy cattel, take hede that thou 
4 be not begyled, as I haue ben an hundred tymes and 1 have been 

.,_. so 100 times. 

more. And first thou shalt knowe, that a good horse Agoodhorse 
hath .liiii. propertyes, that is to say .ii. of a man, .ii. of properties; 
a bauson or a badger, .iiii. of a lyon, .ix. of an oxe, .ix. 
8 of an hare, .ix. of a foxe, .ix. of an asse, and .x. of a 

72. % The two properties, that a horse hath of a man. 

The fyrste is, to haue a proude harte ; and the seconde two, of a 
is, to be bolde and hardy. 

two, of a 
badger : 

64 73. Two properties of a badger. 

73. The .ii. propertyes of a bauson. 

% The fyrste is, to haue a whyte rase or a ball in the 
foreheed ; the seconde, to haue a whyte fote. 

four, of a 

74. The .iiii. properties of a lyon. 

^f The fyrste is, to haue a brode breste ; the seconde, to 
be styffe-docked ; the thyrde, to be wylde in counten- 
aunce ; the fourthe, to haue foure good legges. 

[Fol. 44.] 
nine, of an 

75. The .ix. propertyes of an oxe. 

^f The fyrste is, to be brode-rybbed ; the .ii. to be lowe- 
brawned ; the thyrde, to be shorte-pasturned ; the .iiii. 
to haue greatte senewes ; the fyfte, to be wyde betwene 
the challes ; the syxte is, to haue great nosethrylles ; 
the .vii. to be bygge on the chyn ; the .viii. to be fatte 
and well fedde ; the .ix. to be vpryghte standynge. 

nine, of a 
hare : 

76. The .ix. propertyes of an hare. 

^f The fyrste is styffe-eared ; the seconde, to haue greate 
eyen ; the thyrde, round eyen ; the fourthe, to haue a 
leane heed ; the .v. to haue leane knees ; the syxte, to be 
4 wyght on foote ; the .vii. to turne vpon a lyttell grounde ; 
the .viii. to haue shorte buttockes ; the .ix. to haue two 
good fyllettes. 

nine, of a 
fox : 

77. The .ix. propertyes of a foxe. 

^f The fyrste is, to be prycke-eared, the seconde, to 
be lyttell-eared ; the thyrde, to be rounde-syded ; the 
fourthe, to be syde-tayled ; the fyfte, to be shorte- 
4 legged ; the syxte, to be blacke-legged ; the .vii. to be 
shorte-trottynge ; the .viii. to be well coloured ; the .ix. 
to have a lyttell heed. 

78. Nine properties of an ass. 65 

78. The .is. propertyes of an asse. 
f The fyrste is to be small-mouthed ; the seconde, to be j?«i- jjJO 
longe-rayned : the .Hi. to be thyn-cressed ; the fourthe, ass : 
to be streyght-backed ; the fyfth, to haue small stones ; 
4 the syxte, to be lathe-legged ; the .vii. to be rounde-foted ; 
the eyght, to be holowe-foted ; the .ix. to haue a toughe 

79. The .x. properties of a woman. 

If The fyrst is, to be mery of chere ; the seconde, to be ten, of a 

" ' J woman : 

well paced ; the thyrde, to haue a brode foreheed ; the 
fourth, to haue brode buttockes ; the fyfthe, to be harde 

4 of warde ; the syxte, to be easye to lepe vppon ; the .vii. 
to be good at a longe iourneye ; the .viii. to be well 
sturrynge vnder a man ; the .ix. to be alwaye besye with 
the mouthe ; the tenth, euer to be chowynge on the 

8 brydell. ^f It myght fortune I coude shewe as many 

defautes of horses, as here be good propertyes, but than yo^fauiu of 
I shulde breake my promyse, that I made at Grombalde then I 
brydge, the first tyme I wente to Ryppon for to bye coltes. break my 

t-> 1 • r 1 /- promise. 

1 2 But it is to suppose, that if a horse want any of these 
good propertyes, that he shulde haue a defaute in the 
same place. And this is suffycient for this time. 

80. r The diseases and sorance of horses. [Foi.45.] 

Nowe it is to be knowen, the soraunce and dvseases of Diseases of 


horses, & in what partes of theyr bodyes they be ; that 
a man maye the rather perceyue them. And howe be it 
4 that it may be against my profyt, yet I wil shewe you 
suche as cometh to my mynde. 

81. The lampas. 

^f In the mouthe is the lampas, & is a thycke skyn full The lampas. 
of bloude, hangynge ouer his tethe aboue, that he may 
not eate. 

66 82. The disease called the Barbs. 

82. The barbes. 

The barbs. ^ The barbes be lyttell pappes in a horse mouth, and 

lette hym to byte : these two be sone holpen. 

Mourning of 
the tongue. 

83. Mournynge of the tonge. 

f Mournynge of the tonge is an yll dysease, and harde 
to be cured. 


84. Pursy. 

\ Pursy is a dysease in an horses bodye, and maketh 
hym to blowe shorte, and appereth at his nosethrilles, 
and commeth of colde, and may be well mended. 

[Fol. 45*-] 

85. Broken-wynded. 

\ Broken-wynded is an yll dysease, and cometh of 
rennynge or rydynge ouer moche, and specially shortely 
after he is watred, and appereth at his nosethryll, at his 
4 flanke, and also at his tuell, and wyll not be mended ; 
and wyll moche blowe and coughe, if he be sore chafed ; 
and it wyl leaste appere, whan he is at grasse. 


86. Glaunders. 

\ Glaunders is a disease, that may be mended, and 
commeth of a heate, and a sodeyne colde, and appereth 
at his nosethrylles, and betwene his chall-bones. 

on the chine. 

87. Mournynge on the chyne. 

\ Mournynge on the chyne is a dysease incurable, and 
it appereth at his nosethryll lyke oke-water. A glaunder 
whan it breaketh, is lyke matter. Broken-wynded, and 
4 pursynes, is but shorte blowynge. 

88. The disease called Strangiielion. 67 

88. Stranguellyon. 
% Stranguelyon is a lyght dysease to cure, and a horse ®3k^ 
wyl be very sore sycke therof, and cometh of a chafynge 
hote, that he swete, and after he wyll ryse and swell in 
4 dyuers places of his body, as moche as a mannes fyste ; 
and wyll breake by it selfe, if it be kepte warme, or els 
is there ieoperdy. 

89. The hawe. 

% The hawe is a sorance in a horse eye, and is lyke Thehaw - 
gristell, and maye well be cutte oute, or els it wyll haue |J?]^£v«* 
out his eye ; and that horse that one, hath commonly ^ 
4 two. 

90. Blyndnes. 
% A horse wyll waxe blynde with laboure, and that Blindness. 
maye be cured betyme. 

91. Vines. 

^f The viues is a sorance vnder a horse ere, bytwene the The ^ ves - 

ouer ende of the chall-bones and the necke, and are 

rounde knottes bytwene the skyn and the fleshe lyke 

4 tennes-balles ; and if they be not kilde, they wyl waxe 

quicke, and eate the rotes of the horse eares, and kil hym. 

92. The cordes. 

^f The cordes is a thynge that wyll make a horse to The cords - 
stumble, and ofte to fall, and appereth before the forther 
legges of the body of the horse, and may well be cured 
4 in .ii. places, and there be but fewe horses but they 
haue parte therof. 

93. The farcyon. 
^f The farcyon is an yll soraunce, and maye well be cured The farcion. 


94. TJie disease called Malander. 

will catch it. 

[Fol. 4 6i.] 



in the begynnynge, and wyll appere in dyuers places of his 
bodye, and there wyll ryse pymples as moche as halfe a 

4 walnutshell, and they wyll folowe a veyne, and wyll 
breake by it selfe. And as manye horses as do playe with 
him that is sore, and gnappe of the matter that renneth 
out of the sore, shall haue the same sorance within a 

8 moneth after ; and therfore kepe the sycke frome the 
hole. And if that sorance be not cured betyme, he wyll 
dye of it. 

94. A malander. 

\ A malander is an yl sorance, and may wel be cured 
for a tyme, but with yl keping it wyl comme agayne, 
and appereth on the forther legges, in the bendynge of 
4 the knee behynde, and is lyke a scabbe or a skal : and 
some horses wyll haue two vpon a legge, within an 
inche together, and they wyl make a horse to stumble, 
and other whyle to fall. 



The serewe. 

95. A selander. 

^[ A selander is in the bendynge of the legge behynde, 
lyke as the malander is in the bendynge of the legge 
before, and is lyke a malander, and may be well cured. 

96. A serewe. 

\ A serewe is an yll soraunce, and is lyke a splent, but 

it is a lyttell longer and more, and lyeth vppe to the knee 

on the inner syde. And some horses haue a throughe 

4 serewe on bothe sydes of the legge, and that horse must 

nedes stumble and fall, and harde it is to be cured. 

97. A splent. 

A splent. ^ A splent is the leaste soraunce that is, that alwaye 

[Fol. 47.] contynueth, excepte lampas. And many men take vpon 

them to mende it, and do payre it. 

98. TJte disease called Ringbone. 69 

98. A ryngbone. 

\ A ryngbone is an yll soraunce, and appereth before on Ring-bone, 
the foote, aboue the houe, as well before as behynde, 
and wyll be swollen three inches brode, and a quarter 
4 of an inche or more of heyghte, and the heare wyll stare 
and waxe thyn, and wyll make hym to halte, and is yll 
to cure, if it growe longe. 

99. Wynd-galles. 

\ Wyndgalles is a lyghte sorance, and commeth of great wind-gaiis. 
labour, and appereth on eyther syde of the ioynte aboue 
the fetelockes, as wel before as behynde, and is a lyttell 
4 swollen with wynde. 

100. Morfounde. 

^f Morfounde is an yll sorance, and cometh of rydynge Moribund, 
faste tyll he swete, and than sette vp sodeynely in a colde 
place, without lytter, and take cold on his fete, and 

4 specially before, and appereth vnder the houe in the hert 
of the fote, for it wylle growe downe, and waxe whyte, 
and cromely lyke a pomis. And also wyl appere by J taffectsthe 
processe by the wryncles on the houe, and the houe 

8 before wyll be thycker, and more bryckle than and he 
had not benne morfounde ; nor he shall neuer trede so 
boldely vpon the harde stones as he dydde before; nor [Foi. 47*] 
wyll not be able to beare a man a quarter of a yere or 
12 more ; and with good paryng and shoynge, as he oughte 
to be, he wyll do good seruyce. 

101. The coltes euyll. 

% Coltes euyll is an yll disease, and commeth of ranknes The coifs 
of nature and bloudde, and appereth in his scote, for 
there wyl he swel great, and wyll not be harde, and 
4 soone cured in the begynnynge. 


102. The disease called the Bots. 

Bots in the 

Worms in 
the belly. 

[Fol. 48.] 
' Affreyd.' 

102. The bottes. 

*\ The bottes is an yll dysease, and they lye in a horse 
mawe, and they be an inche long, white-coloured, and 
a reed heed, and as moche as a fyngers ende, & they 

4 be quycke, and stycke faste in the mawe-syde ; it apperethe 
by stampynge of the horse, or tomblynge, and in the 
beginninge there is remedy ynoughe, and if they be 
not cured betyme, they wyll eate thorowe his mawe, and 

8 kyll hym. 

103. The wormes. 

^f The wormes is a lyght dysease, and they lye in the 
greatte paunche, in the belye of the horse, and they 
are shynynge, of colour lyke a snake, syxe inches in 
4 lengthe, greate in the myddes, and sharpe at bothe 
endes, and as moche as a spyndel, and wyll sone be 

104. Affreyd. 

% Affreyd is an yll disease, and commethe of great 

labour and rydynge faste with a contynuall sweate, and 

thanne sodeynly to take a great colde, his legges wyll 

4 be styffe, and his skyn wyll stycke fast to his sydes, and 

may be well cured. 

105. Nauylgall. 

Navel-gall. ^ Nauylgall is a soraunce, hurte with a saddle, or with a 

buckle of a croper, or suche other, in the myddes of the 
backe, and maye be lyghtely cured. 

106. A spauen. 

Spavin. ^[ A spauen is an yll sorance, whervppon he wyll halte, 

and specyally in the begynnynge, and appereth on the 

hynder legges within, and agaynste the ioynte, and it wyll 

4 be a lyttell swolen and harde. And some horses haue 

107. The disease called a Curb. 71 

throughe spauen, and appereth bothe within and without, 
and those be yll to be cured. 

107. A courbe. 
^[ A courbe is an yll sorance, and maketh a horse to halte A curb, 
sore, and appereth vppon the hynder legges streyght 
behynde, vnder the camborell place, and a lyttell benethe 
4 the spauen, and wyll be swollen, and yll to cure, if it growe 
longe vpon hyra. 

108. The stringe-halte. [Foi. 4 8*.] 

% The stryng-halte is an yl disease, and maketh hym String-halt, 
to twyche vp his legge sodeynly, and maketh hym to 
halte, and cometh ofte with a colde, and doth not appere 
4 outwarde. 

109. Enterfyre. 

^[ Enterfyre is a sorance, and cometh of yll shoynge, and Enterfire. 
appereth ofte both behynde and before, betwene the 
fete agaynst the fetelockes ; there is no remedy but good 
4 showynge. 

110. Myllettes. 

^f Myllettes is an yll sorance, and appereth in the fete- Millets, 
lockes behynde, & causeth the heare to sheede thre or 
foure inches of length, and a quarter of an inche in brede, 
4 lyke as it were bare ; and yll to cure but it maye be per- 
ceiued, and specially in wynter tyme. 

111. The peynes. 

% The peynes is an yll soraunce and appereth in the fete- 'The t 
lockes, and wyl swel in wynter tyme, and oyse of water, 
and the heare wyll stare and be thyn, and yl to cure, 
4 but it wyl be seen in winter. 


[Fol. 49-] 

72 112. TJie disease called Cratches. 

112. Cratches. 

1 Cratches is a soraunce that wyll cause a horse to halt, 
and commeth of yll kepynge, and appereth in the 
pasturnes, lyke as the skyn were cut ouerthwarte, that a 
4 man maye laye a white strawe, and it is sone cured. 



A -cloyed. 

113. Atteynt. 

^| Atteynt is a sorance, that commeth of an ouer- 
rechynge, yf it be before ; and if it be behynde, it is of 
the tredynge of an other horse, the whiche maye be soone 
4 cured. 

114. Grauelynge. 

^[ Grauelynge is a hurte, that wyll make a horse to halte, 
and commethe of grauell and lyttel stones, that goth in 
betwene the shough and the herte of the fote, and is sone 
4 mended. 

115. A-cloyed. 

^| A-cloyde is an hurte, that commeth of yll shoynge, 
whan a smyth dryueth a nayle in-to the quycke ; the 
which wyll make hym to halt, and is sone cured. 

116. The scabbe. 

The scab. % There is a disease amonge horses that is called the 

scabbe, and it is a skorfe in dyuers places of his body. 

And it commeth of a pouertie and yll kepynge ; and is 

4 most commonly amonge olde horses, and wyll dye 

thervpon, and maye be well cured. 


117. Lowsy. 

^[ There be horses that wyll be lowsy, and it cometh of 
pouertie, colde, and yll kepynge ; and it is moste com- 

]18. Warts on a /torse. 73 

monly amonge yonge horses, and menne take lyttell 
4 hede vnto it ; and yet they wyll dye thervppon, and it I? 01 - 49*J 
maye be soone cured. 

118. Wartes. 

^[ There is a defaute in a horse, that is neyther sorance, ^£g of 
hurte, nor disease, and that is, if a horse wante wartes behind, 
behynde, benethe the spauen-place, for then he is noo 

4 chapmannes ware, if he be wylde ; but if he be tame, 
and haue ben rydden vpon, than Caueat emptor, beware Caveat 
the byer, for the byer hath bothe his eyen to se, and 
his handes to handell. It is a sayenge, that suche a 

8 horse shoulde dye sodeynely, whan he hath lyued as 
many yeres as the mone was dayes olde, at suche tyme 
as he was foled. 

119. The sayinge of the frenche-man. 

^ These be soraunce, hurtes, dyseases, that be nowe 
comme to my mynde ; and the frenche-man saythe, Mort A French 

j 7 c proverb. 

de langue et de escnine Sount maladyes saunce medicine. 

4 The mournynge of the tongue, and of the chyne, are 
diseases without remedy or medicyne. And ferther he 
saythe, Gardes bien, que it soyt cler de vieu, Que tout Another 
trauayle ne soit perdue : Be wel ware that he be clere prowerb. 

8 of syghte, lest all thy trauayle or iourneye be lost or 

nyght. And bycause I am a horse-master my-selfe, I 

haue shewed you the soraunce and dyseases of horses, to j- Fol _ ^ 

the entent that men shulde beware, & take good hede 

12 what horses they bye of me or of any other. Howe 

be it I saye to my customers, and those that bye any If g^ you 
horses of me, and euer they wil trust any hors-master ^^ 
or corser whyle they lyue, truste me. Sultme. 


120. Horse-masters, eorsers, and leeches. 

A horse- 
master buys 
wild colts 
and breeds 
them and 
breaks them 

A courser 
merely deals 
in them. 

A horse- 
leech cures 
Add to these 
an apothe- 
cary, and 
you have 4 

[Fol. so*.] J 6 

120. f The diuersitie bytwene a horse-mayster, 
a corser, and a horse-leche. 

A Horse-mayster is he, that bieth wylde horses, or 
coltes, and bredeth theym, and selleth theym agayne 
wylde, or breaketh parte of them, and maketh theym 
tame, and than selleth them. A corser is he, that byeth 
all rydden horses, and selleth them agayne. The horse- 
leche is he, that takethe vppon hym to cure and mende 
all maner of diseases and soraunce that horses haue. 
And whan these three be mette, if ye hadde a potycarye 
to make the fourthe, ye myghte haue suche foure, that 
it were harde to truste the best of them. It were also 
conuenyent to shew medicynes and remedyes for al these 
diseases and sorances ; but it wolde be to longe a pro- 
cesse at this tyme, for it wolde be as moche as halfe 
this boke. And I haue not the perfyte connynge, nor 
the experyence, to shewe medycynes and remedyes for 
theym all. And also the horse-leches wolde not be 
content therwith, for it myghte fortune to hurte or 
hynder theyr occupation. 

Whoso hath 
sheep, swine 
and bees, 
shall surely 

Have only 
boars and 
sows ; no 

121. f Of swyne. 

Nowe thou husbande, that haste bothe horses and 
mares, beastes and shepe : It were necessary also, that 
thou haue bothe swyne and bees ; for it is an olde 

4 sayinge : he that hath bothe shepe, swyne, and bees, 
slepe he, wake he, he maye thryue. And that sayenge 
is, bycause that they be those thinges that moste profyt 
riseth of in the shortest space, with least coste. Than 

8 se howe manye swyne thou art able to kepe ; let them 

be bores and sowes all, and no hogges. And if thou 

be able to rere vi pigges a yere, than let two of them 

be bores, and foure of them sowes, and so to contynue 

12 after the rate. For a bore will haue as lyttell kepynge 

122. Of keeping bees. 75 

as a hogge, and is moche better than a hogge, and more a boar is 

... , , . ., better than 

meate on hym and is ready at all tymes to eate m the a hog. 
wynter season, and to be layde in souse. And a sowe, er 

:6 she be able to kyl, shall bryng forth as many pyggs or 
moo, as she is worth ; and her bodye is neuer the worse, 
and wyll be as good baken as a hogge, and as lyttell 
kepynge, but at suche tyme as she hath pygges. And if [Foi.51.] 

20 thy sowe haue moo pygges than thou wilt rere, sel them, 

or eate them, & rere those piffffes that come about lenten- Hear pigs in 

r °° spring and 

time, specyally the begynnynge of somer, for they can-not <« ri y 
be rered in winter, for cold, without great coste. 

122. £T Of bees. 

Of bees is lyttell charge but good attendaunce ; at the 
tyme that they shall cast the swarme, it is conuenient, that 
the hyue be set in a garden, or an orchyarde, where as p att h e bee- 
4 they maye be kepte from the northe wynde, and the garden or 
mouthe of the hyue towarde the sonne. And in June or 
and July they do most commonlye caste, and they They com- 
wolde haue some lowe trees nyghe vnto them before ^*am in 
8 the hyue that the swarme maye lyght vpon ; and whan jui>. 
the swarme is knytte, take a hyue, and splente it within 
with thre or foure splentes, that the bees maye knytte 
theyr combes therto ; and annoynte the splentes, and 

12 the sydes of the hyue, with a lyttell honye. And if thou Howto 
haue no honye, take swete creame, and than set a stole ^ra 
or a forme nyghe vnto the swarme, and laye a clene 
washen shete vppon the stole, and thanne holde the 

16 smalle ende of the hyue downewarde and shake the [Foi.51*.] 
bees in-to the hyue, and shortely sette it vppon the stole, 
and turne vppe the corners of the shete ouer the hyue, 
and to leue one place open, that the bees may come in 

20 and out : but thou mayst not fight nor stryue with theym ^ 

for noo cause ; and to laye nettyls vppon the bowes, with bees - 
where as they were knytte, to dryue them from that 

?6 123. Of keeping beasts. 

place ; and soo watche them all that daye, that they go 

24 not away ; and at nyght, whan al be goone vp into the 

hyue, take it away and set it where it shall stande, and 

take awaye thy shete, and haue claye tempered to laye 

aboute it vppon the borde or stone, where it shall stande, 

28 that noo wynde comme in, but the borde is better and 

for a th e e a beei e warmer. And to leaue an hole open on the south syde, 

ouf ° '" and °f tnree inches brode, and an inche of heyghte, for the 

bees to come in and out. And than to make a couerynge 

32 of wheate-strawe or rye-strawe, to couer and house the 

Set the hive hy Ue about, and set the hyue two fote or more from the 

on stakes, J J 

feet e from W ° erthe vpon stakes, soo that a mouse cannot come to it, 

ground. an( j a i so ne yther beastes nor swyne. And if a swarme be 

36 caste late in the yere, they wolde be fedde with honnye in 

wynter, and layde vppon a thynne narowe borde, or a 

thynne sclatte or leade ; put it into the hyue, and an other 

[Foi. 52.] thynne borde wolde be set before euery hyues mouthe, 

40 that no winde come in ; and to haue foure or fyue 

lyttell nyckes made on the nether syde, that a bee maye 

comme out or go in, and so fastened, that the wynde 

blowe it not downe, and to take it vp whan he wyll. 

if a hive is 44 And that hyue that is fedde, to stoppe the mouthe cleane, 

stop the ' that other bees come not in ; for if they doo, they wyll 

fyghte, and kyll eche other. And beware, that noo 

waspes come in-to the hyue, for they wyll kyl the bees, 

48 and eate the honny. And also there is a bee called a 

Drones. drone, and she is greatter than an other bee, and they wyll 

eate the honny, and gather nothynge : and therfore they 

it is said, wolde be kylde, and it is a sayenge, that she hath loste 

the drone , , . 

hathiosther 52 her stynge, and than she wyl not not labour as the other 



123. f Howe to kepe beastes and other cattell. 

How to If a housbande shall kepe cattell well to his profytte, 

keep beasts. 

he must haue seuerall closes and pastures to put his cattel 

123. Of keeping cattle. 77 

in, the which wolde be wel quickesetted, diched, . & 
4 hedged, that he maye seuer the byggeste cattell frome 
the weykeste at his pleasure, and specyallye in wynter- [Foi.sza.] 
tyme, whan they shall be fodered. And thoughe a man 
be but a farmer, and shall haue his farme xx yeres, it 
8 is lesse coste for hym, and more profyte, to quyckeset, JL^J^* 
dyche, and hedge, than to haue his cattell goo before the jj£ig4 cattle 
herdeman. For let the housbande spende in thre yeres in - 
as moche money as the kepynge of his beastes, swyne, 
12 and shepe doth cost him in iii yeres, than alwaye after, 
he shal haue all maner of cattell with the tenthe parte of 
the coste, and the beastes shal lyke moche better. And 
by this reason. The herdeman wyll haue for euery beast A herdman 

expects 2d. 

16 .ii.d. a quarter, or there aboute : And the swyneherde per beast; 

and a swine- 

wyll haue for euery swyne .i.d. at the leaste. Than he herd id. 
must haue a shepeherde of his owne, or elles he shal 
neuer thryue. Than reken meate, drinke, and wages 
20 for his shepeherde, the herdmans hyre, and the swyne- 
herdes hyre, these charges wyll double his rent or nyghe 
it, excepte his farme be aboue .xl. s. by yere. Nowe see 
what his charges be in .iii. yeres, lette hym ware as moche it is better 

to spend the 

24 money in quickesettynge, dychynge, and hedgynge, and money on 
in thre yeres he shall be discharged for euermore, and 
moche of this labour he and his seruauntes maye do with 
theyr owne handes, and saue moche money. And than 

28 hath he euery fyelde in seueraltye. And by the assente [Foi.53.] 
of the lordes and tenauntes, euery neyghbour may ex- 
chaunge landes with other. And than shall his farme be 
twyse so good in profytte to the tenaunte as it was before, 

32 and as moche lande kepte in tyllage ; and than shall not 
the ryche man ouer-eate the poore man with his cattell, 
and the fourth parte of heye and strawe shall serue his You win 

, , . . ..... . save in hay 

cattell better in a pasture, than 1111. tymes soo moche wyll and straw. 
36 do in a house, and lesse attendaunce, and better the 
cattel shall lyke, and the chiefe sauegarde for come bothe 
daye and nyghte that can be. 


124. How to set hedges. 


Set young 
oaks and 

[Fol. 53 4.] 

Clear away 
the weeds. 

Never have 

When to set 

How to set 

Make a 

[Fol. 54-] 

124. ^[ To get settes and set them. 

And if thou haue pastures, thou muste nedes haue 
quyckesettynge, dychynge and plasshynge. Whan it is 
grene, and commeth to age, than gette thy quyckesettes 

4 in the woode-countreye, and let theym be of whyte-thorne 
and crabtree, for they be beste ; holye and hasell be good. 
And if thou dwelle in the playne-countrey, than mayste 
thou gete bothe asshe, oke, and elme, for those wyll 
8 encrease moche woode in shorte space. And set thy oke- 
settes and the asshe .x. or .xii fote a-sonder, and cut them 
as thou dost thy other settes, and couer theym ouer with 
thornes a lyttell, that shepe and cattell eate them not. 

12 And also wede them clene in mydsomer mone or soone 
after: for the wedes, if they ouer growe, wyl kyl the settes. 
But get no blacke-thorne for nothynge, for that wyl grow 
outwarde into the pasture, and doth moch hurte in the 

1 6 grasse, and tearyng the woll of the shepe. It is good 
tyme to set quickesettes, fro that tyme the leaues be fallen, 
vnto oure lady daye in lente ; and thy sandye grounde or 
grauell set fyrste, than clay grounde, and than meane 

20 grounde, and the medowe or marreys grounde laste, for 
the sande and grauell wyll drye anone, and than the 
quyckeset wyll take no rote, excepte it haue greate weate ; 
for the muldes wyll lye lose, if it be dyched in February or 

24 marche, and lyke wise clay ground. And make thy settes 
longe ynough, that they maye be set depe ynough in the 
erth: for than they wyll growe the better. And to stande 
halfe a foote and more aboue the erthe, that they maye 

28 sprynge oute in many braunches. And than to take a lyne, 
and sette it there as thou wylte haue thy hedge, and to 
make a trenche after thy lyne, and to pare awaye the 
grasse there the quyckesettes shal be set, and caste it by, 

32 where the erthe of the dyche shall lye, and dygge vp the 
muldes a spade-graffe depe, and to put in thy settes, and 
dygge up more molde, and laye vppon that set, and so 

125. How to make a ditch. 79 

peruse, tyll thou haue set all thy settes, and let them lene 
36 towarde the dyche. And a foote from that make thy Have the 

, , . J ditch a foot 

dyche. For if thou make it to nvghe thy settes, the from the 

J ° * hedge. 

water maye fortune to weare the grounde on that syde, 
and cause thy settes to fall downe. 

125. \ To make a dyche. 

If thou make thy dyche foure foote brode, than wolde of what size 
it be two foote and a halfe depe. And if it be .v. fote ditches, 
brode, than -ill. fote depe, and so accordynge ; and if it 
4 be fyue fote brod, than it wolde be double sette, and the 
rather it wolde fence it-selfe, and the lower hedge wyll 

126. «! To make a hedge. 

Thou muste gette the stakes of the harte of oke, for stakes for a 
those be best ; crabtre, blacke-thorne, and ellore be good. ge " 
Reed wethy is beste in marsshe grounde ; asshe, maple, 
4 hasel, and whyte-thorne wyl serue for a time. And set 

thy stakes within .ii. foote and a halfe together, excepte [Foi. 54*.] 

thou haue very good edderynge, and longe, to bynde with. 

And if it be double eddered, it is moch the better, and Ethers for a 


8 gret strength to the hedge, and moche lenger it wil last. 
And lay thy small trouse or thornes, that thou hedgeste 
withall, ouer thy quickesettes, that shepe do not eate the 
sprynge nor buddes of thy settes. Let thy stakes be well Drive the 

1 2 dryuen, that the poynt take the hard erthe. And whan wi^. 
thou haste made thy hedge, and eddered it well, than take 
thy mall agayne, and dryue downe thy edderinges, and Wind in the 
also thy stakes by and by. For with the wyndynge of the 

1 6 edderynges thou doost leuse thy stakes ; and therfore 

they muste nedes be dryuen newe, and hardened agayne, Then drive 
and the better the stake wil be dryuen, whan he is wel again. 

8o 127. How to pleach a hedge. 

127. \ To plasshe or pleche a hedge. 

S°rch°a If the hed g e be of .x. or .xii. yeres growing sythe it 

hedge. was fi rst set> thanne take a sharpe hachet, or a handbyll, 

and cutte the settes in a playne place, nyghe vnto the 
mo^tha^ 4 erthe, the more halue a-sonder; and bende it downe 
through, towarde the erthe, and wrappe and wynde theym to- 

[Foi. 55.] gether, but alwaye se that the toppe lye hyer than the 

and bend , . . 

them down, rote a good quantytie, for elles the sappe wyll not renne 

but not too ~ . , 

low. o in-to the toppe kyndely, but in processe the toppe wyll 

dye ; and than set a lyttel hedge on the backe-syde, and 
it shall nede noo more mendynge manye yeres after. 
And if the hedge be of .xx. .xxiiii. or .xxx. yere of age, 

^ea^h°an x 2 s y trie lt was fy rst sett e, than wynde in first al the nether- 

oider hedge. moste bowes, and wynde them together, and than cutte 
the settes in a playne place a lyttel from the erth, the 
more halfe a-sonder, and to lette it slaue downewarde, 
1 6 and not vpwarde, for dyuerse causes : than wynde the 
bowes and braunches therof in-to the hedge, and at euery 
two fote, or .iii. fote, to leaue one set growyng not 
plasshed ; and the toppe to be cut of foure fote hygh, 
20 or there-aboute, to stande as a stake, if there be any 
suche, or els to set an-other, and to wynd the other that 
be pleched about them. And if the bowes wyll not 
lye playne in the hedge, than cut it the more halfe 

How to 24 a-sonder, and bynd it to the hedge, and than shal he not 

pleach a very m 

old hedge. nede for to mende the hedge, but in fewe places, .xx. 

yeres after or more. And if the hedge be olde, and be 

great stubbes or trees, and thyn in the bottome, that 

28 beastes may go vnder or betwene the trees : thanne 

take a sharpe axe, and cutte the trees or stubbes, that 

[Foi. 55*.] growe a fote from the erthe, or there-about, in a plaine 

place, within an inche or two inches of the side, and let 

32 them slaue downward, as I sayd before, and let the 

toppe of the tree lye ouer the rote of an other tree, and 

to pleche downe the bowes of the same tree, to stoppe 

128. How to mend a road. 8 1 

the holowe places. And if all the holowe and voyde 
36 places wyl not be fylled and stopped, than scoure the 
olde dyche, and cast it vp newe, and to fyll with erthe all 
the voyde places. And if soo be these trees wyll not 
reche in euerye place to make a sufficyent defence, than 
40 double quicke-set it, & diche it new in euery place that 
is nedeful, and set a hedge thervpon, and to ouerlay the 
settes, for eatynge of shepe or other cattel. 

128. \ To mende a hye-waye. 
Me semeth, it is necessarye to shewe mine opinion, Howto 
howe an hye-way shulde be amended. And fyrste and road, 
pryncypally, se that there be noo water standynge in the 
4 hye-waye, but that it be alwaye currante and rennynge, Let no 

T J ' J J ° water stand 

nor haue none abydynge more in one place thanne in an- °nit. 
other. And in somer, whan the water is dryed vp, than 
to get grauell, and to fyll vp euery lowe place, and to 
8 make thevm euen, somewhat dyscendynge or currante, [Foi. 56.] 
one waye or other ; and if there be noo grauell nor F»n °p the 

* holes with 

stones to gette, yet fyll vp with erthe in the begyn- gravel, 
nyge of somer, that it maye be well hardened with 
1 2 caryage and treadynge vppon, and it shall be well 
amended, if the water maye passe away from it; the 
whiche wolde be well consydered, and specially aboute 
London, where as they make moche more coste than About 


16 nedeth ; for there they dyche theyr hye-wayes on both e they mend 

J } J J J roads badly, 

sydes, and fyll vp the holowe and lowe places with erthe, potting in 

J * r r ' earth before 

and than they caste and lave grauell alofte. And whan the gravel, 
a greatte rayne or water commeth, and synketh thorowe 
20 the grauell, and commeth to the erthe, than the erthe 
swelleth and bolneth and waxeth softe, and with 
treadynge, and specyally with caryage, the grauell Then the 

gravel sinks, 

synketh, and gothe downewarde as his nature and kynde and the road 

J is like a 

24 requyreth, and than it is in maner of a quycke-sande, quicksand, 
that harde it is for any thynge to goo ouer. But yf they 


129. How to remove trees. 

wolde make no dyche in sommertyme, whan the water is 
dryed vp, that a man may se all the holowe and lowe places, 

^e e gr S a h v°e" ld z8 than to car y g rauel > and fvI ' lt V P a s hygh as the other 
knolles be ; than wold it not bolne ne swell, nor be no 
quycke-sande, and euery ma« may go beside the hie-way 
with theyr cariage at theyr pleasure. And this me semeth 

32 is lesse coste, and lenger wyll last with a lyttell mendynge 
whan nede requyreth. Therfore me thynketh, yf this 
were well loked vpon, it shuld be bothe good and 
necessarye for that purpose : for soo haue I seen done in 

36 other places, where as I haue ben, &c. 


[Fol. 563.] 


should be 
looked to. 

How to 
remove and 
set trees. 

Cut off some 
of the 

[Fol. 51 ; So 
ed all the 
■way to the 
end. We 
may call it 

129. \ To remoue and set trees. 

If thou wylte remoue and sette trees, get as manye 
rotes with them as thou canste, and breake them not, nor 
bryse theym, by thy wyll. And if there be any rote 

4 broken and sore brused, cut it of harde by, there as it is 
brused, with a sharpe hatchet, elles that roote wyll dye. 
And if it be asshe, elme, or oke, cut of all the bowes 
cleane, and saue the toppe hole. For if thou make hym 
8 ryche of bowes, thou makeste hym poore of thryfte, for 
two causes. The bowes causeth theym to shake with 
wynde, and to leuse the rotes. Also he can-not be 
soo cleane gete, but some of the rotes muste nedes be cut, 

12 and than there wyll not come soo moche sappe and 
moystenes to the bowes, as there dyd before. And if 
the tree be very longe, cut of the top, two or thre 
yardes. And if it be an apple-tree, or peare-tree, or 

16 suche other as beareth fruyte, than cut away all the 
water-bowes, and the small bowes, that the pryncipall 
bowes may haue the more sap. And if ye make a 
marke, which syde of the tree standeth towarde the 

20 sonne, that he may be set so agayne, it is soo moche 
the better. 

131. Of trees set without roots. 83 

130. \ Trees to be set without rotes and growe. 
There be trees wil be set without rotes, and growe Some trees 

can be set 

well, and sprynge rotes of them-selfe. And those be without 


dyuerse apple-trees, that haue knottes in the bowes, as 
4 casses, or wydes, and suche other, that wyll growe on 

slauynges, and lykewyse popeler and wethy : and they Poplar and 


must be cut cleane besyde the tree, that they growe on, 
and the toppe cut cleane of .viii. or .x. fote of lengthe, 
8 and all the bowes betwene, and to be set a fote depe or 
in the erthe, in good grounde. And ye shall vnder- 
stande, that there be foure maner of wethyes, that is Four 

withies, viz. 

to say, white wethye, blacke wethy, reed wethy, and Jf hit ?> 

u icicle t red, 

1 2 osyerde wethy. Whyte wethye wyll growe vppon drye ***■ osier - 
grounde, yf it be sette in the begynnyge of wynter, and 
wyll not growe in marsshe grounde ; blacke wethy wyll [Foi. si 9 6.] 
growe better on marshe grounde, and redde wethy in 

1 6 lyke maner : and osyerde wethy wyll growe beste in water ° s!er ? ™ n 
and moyste grounde. And they be trees that wyll soone water - 
be nourysshed, and they wyll beare moche woodde, and 
they wolde be cropped euery .vii. or .viii. yere or els they Crop them 

, , , , . everv seven 

20 wyll dye ; but they maye not be cropped in sappe-tyme, years, 
nor no tree els. And in many places, bothe the lordes, 
freeholders, and tenauntes at wyll, sette suche wethyes, and 
popelers, in marsshe grounde, to nourysshe wodde, &c. 

131. «f To fell wodde for housholde, or to sell. 

If thou haue any woddes to felle, for thy householde Fell under- 
to brenne, or to sell, than fell the vnder-wodde fyrste in winter'? let 
wynter, that thy cattell or beastes maye eate and brouse browzeonit. 

4 the toppes, and to fell noo more on a daye but as moche 
as the beastes wyll eate the same daye, or on the morowe 
after. And as soone as it is well eaten or broused, 
thanne kydde it, and set them on the endes, and that Make it np 

8 wyll saue the bandes from rottynge, and they shall be mto£lggots - 

84 132. Of shredding and lopping trees. 

[Foi.52*.] the lyghter to carye, and the better wyll they brenne, 

and lie in lesse rowme. And whan thou shalt bryng them 

"°^ to home to make a stacke of them, set the nethermoste 

faggots. j 2 course ypon the endes, and the seconde course flat vppon 

the syde, and the endes vpwarde, and the thyrde cou[r]se 

flatte on the syde ouerthwart the other. And so to 

peruse them, tyll thou haue layd all vp. And whan thou 

16 shalte brenne them, take the ouermoste fyrste. 

132. % To shrede, lop, or croppe trees. 

H-owto If thou haue any trees to shrede, loppe, or croppe 

and crop f or the fyre-wodde, croppe them in wynter, that thy 

beastes maye eate the brouse, and the mosse of the 

4 bowes, and also the yues. And whanne they be broused 

and eaten, dresse the wodde, and bowe it clene, and 

cutte it at every byghte, and rere the greatte wodde to 

the tree, and kydde the smal bowes, and set them on 

8 ende. And if thou shalte not haue sufficyent wodde, 

nonothead excepte thou heed thy trees, and cut of the toppes, than 

trees too 

low. heed theym thre or foure fote aboue any tymber: and 

if it be noo tymbre tree, but a shaken tree, or a hedge- 

12 rote full of knottes, than heed hym thyrty foote hyghe, 

[Foi. 52*$.] or twenty at the leaste, for soo ferre he wyll beare 
plentye of woode and bowes, and moche more, thanne 

Trees grow if he were not heeded. For a tree hath a propertye to 

only to a 

certain 16 erowe to a certayne heysrht, and whan he commeth to 

height ; then ° J * ° ' 

they spread. that heyghte, he standeth styll, and groweth noo hyer, 
but in brede ; and in conclusion the toppe wyll dye 
and decrease, and the body thryue. And if a tree be 
20 heeded, and vsed to be lopped and cropped at euerye 
.xii. or .xvi. yeres ende, or there-about, it wyll beare 
moche more woode, by processe of time, than if it were 
not cropped, and moche more profyte to the owner. 

133. Of shreddmg and lopping trees. 85 

133. \ Howe a man shoulde shrede, loppe, or croppe 

It is the comon gyse, to begynne at the top of the in shred- 
tree, whan he shall be shred or cropped, bycause eche »™ ^ 
bough shulde lye vppon other whan they shall fal, so *° P . 
4 that the weight of the bowes shall cause theym to be 

the rather cut downe. But that is not beste, for that it is not the 

best way. 

causeth the bowes to slaue downe the nether parte, 
and pulleth awaye the barke from the bodye of the tree, 

8 the whiche wyll cause the tree to be holowe in that place 
in tyme commynge, and many tymes it shall hynder 
hym. And therfore lette hym begynne at the nether- [*.] 
moste boughe fyrste, and with a lyghte axe for an hande, 

12 to cut the boughe on bothe sydes, a fote or two foote 
from the bodye of the tree. And specially cut it more 
on the nether syde, than on the ouer syde, soo that 
the boughe fall not streyght downe, but turne on the 

16 syde, and than shall it not slaue nor breke no barke. 
And euery boughe wil haue a newe heed, and beare 
moche more woode ; and by thy wyll, without thou must Never crop 

or head a 

nedes do it, crop not thy tree, nor specyallye heed hym, tree with a 

20 whan the wynde standeth in the northe, or in the eest. wind, 

And beware, that thou croppe hym not, nor heed hym 

(specially) in sappe-tyme, for than wyll he dye within nor in sap- 
fewe yeres after, if it be an oke. 

134. «[ To sell woode or tymber. 

If thou haue any woode to selle, I aduyse the, retayle Reta ;i the 
it thy-selfe, if thou mayste attende vppon it : and if not, w ^ d your " 
thanne to cause thy baylye, or somme other wyse or 

4 dyscrete man, to do it for the. And if it be small wode, if small, sell 
to kydde it, and sel it by the hundredes, or by the thou- m£aggots - 
sandes. And if there be asshes in it, to sell the smalle 
asshes to cowpers for garches, and the gret asshes to [Foi. 53^.] 

8 whele-wryghtes, and the meane asshes to plowe-wrightes, 


135. Of plantations. 

Fell oaks 
and sell 



and the crabbe-trees to myllers, to make cogges and 
ronges. And if there be any okes, bothe gret and smal, 
fel them, and pyl them, and sel the barke by it-selfe ; and 

12 than sorte the trees, the polles by them-selfe, the myddel 
sorte ' by them-selfe, and the greattest by them-selfe, & 
than sel them by scores, or halfe scores, or .C. as thou 
maist, and to fel it hard by the erth, for i. fote next 

1 6 vnto the erth is worthe .ii fote in the top; and to cut 
thy tymber longe ynoughe, that thou leue no timber in 
the toppe. And to sell the toppes as they lye a greatte, 
or elles dresse them & sel the great wodde by it-selfe, 

20 & the kyd-wodde by it-selfe, and to fal the vnder-wode 
fyrst at any tyme between Martilmas and holyrode-day. 
And al the asshes, bytwene Martylmasse and Candelmas, 
and all okes, as soon as they wyl pyl, vntyl May be done, 

24 and not after. Perauenture the greattest man hath not 
the beste prouisyon. And that is bycause the seruauntes 
wyll not enfourme hym these wayes, and also may fortune 
they wold bye suche woodes theym-selfe, or be partener 

28 of the same and to auyse his lorde to sel them. It is not 
co#uenient that the salesman, that selleth the wod, shuld 
be partener with the bier. 

[Fol. 54*.] 

Of planta- 
tions or 
' spring- 

135. % To kepe sprynge-wodde. 

In the wynter before that thou wilt fel thy wodde, make 
a good and a sure hedge, that no maner of cattel can get 
in. And as shortly as it is fallen, let it be caryed away, or 

4 the sprynge come vp, for els the cattell, that doth cary 
the wodde, wyll eate the sprynge : and whan the top is 
eaten, or broken, it is a great lette, hurte, and hynderaunce 
of the goodnes of the sprynge ; for than where it is eaten, 

8 it burges oute of many braunches, and not soo fayre as 
the fyrst wolde haue ben. A parke is best kept, where 
there is neyther man, dogge, nor foure-foted beast therin, 
1 Misprinted shorte. 

136. Of grafting. 87 

except dere. And so is a spryng beste kepte, where 
12 there is neyther marine nor foure-foted beastes within if there is 

much grass 

the hedge. But if there be moche grasse, and thou were there, put in 

only calves 

lothe to lose it, than put in calues, newly wained and and colts, 
taken from theyr dammes, and also waynynge coltes, or 

16 horses not paste a yere of age: and let thy calues be 
taken away at Maye ; the coltes may go lenger for eating 
of any wodde ; but there is ieoperdy bothe for calues, 
foles, and coltes, for tyckes or for beinge lowsy, the 

20 whiche wyl kyl them, if they be not taken hede vnto. 
And .vii. yeres is the lest that it wil saue it-selfe, but 
.x. yeres is best. And than the vnder bowes wolde be [Foi. 54**.] 
cutte awaye, and made kyddes therof, and the other 

24 wyll growe moche the better and faster. And if the 

vnder bowes be not cutte awaye, they wvll dye, and than Cut away 

1 ' * J theunder- 

they be loste, and greatte hurte to the sprynge, for they wood, 
take awaye the sappe, that shoulde cause the sprynge to 
28 growe better. 

136. % t Necessary thynges belongynge to graffynge. 

It is necessarye, profitable, and also a pleasure, Pears, 
to a housbande, to haue peares, wardens, and apples of cherries, 

_ filberts, 

dyuerse sortes. And also cheryes, filberdes, bulleys, buiiace, 


4 dampsons, plummes, walnuttes, and suche other. And &c. 
therfore it is conuenyent to lerne howe thou shalte 
graffe. Than it is to be knowen what thynges thou 
must haue to graffe withall. Thou muste haue a graf- Agrafting- 
8 fynge-sawe, the whiche wolde be very thynne, and 
thycke-tothed ; and bycause it is thynne, it wyll cut the 
narower kyrfe, and the cleaner, for brusynge of the barke. 
And therfore it is sette in a compasse pece of yren, 
12 syxe inches of, to make it styffe and bygge. Thou 

muste haue also a graffynge-knyfe, an inche brode, with Grafting- 
a thycke backe, to cleue the stocke with-all. And also [F01/55V] 
a mallet, to dryue the knyfe and thy wedge in-to the Mallet, and 


137. What fruit to graft first. 

sharp small 


Clay, moss, 
and bast. 

1 6 tree : and a sharpe knife, to pare the stockes heed, and 
an other sharpe knyfe, to cutte the graffe cleane. And 
also thou muste haue two wedges of harde wood, or elles 
of yren, a longe small one for a small stocke, and broder 

20 for a bygger stocke, to open the stocke, whan it is clouen 
and pared : and also good tough claye and mosse, and 
also bastes or pyllynge of wethy or elme, to bynde them 
with, &c. 

Graft pears 



Graft from 
Feb. 14 to 
March 25. 


A crab- 
stock is best 
for apples. 

137. f What fruite shuld be fyrste graffed. 

Peares and wardens wolde be graffed before any maner 
of apples, bycause the sappe commeth sooner and rather 
in-to the peare-tree and warden-tree, thanne in-to the 

4 apple-tree. And after saynt Valentynes daye, it is tyme 
to graffe both peares and wardens, tyll Marche be comen, 
and thanne to graffe appels to our lady daye. And than 
graffe that that is gette of an olde apple-tree fyrste, for 

8 that wyll budde before the graffe get of a yonge apple- 
tree late graffed. And a peare or a warden wolde be 
graffed in a pyrre-stocke ; and if thou canst get none, 
than graffe it in a crabbe-tree stocke, and it wyll do well : 
1 2 and some men graffe theym in a whyte-thorne, and than 
it wyll be the more harder and stonye. And for all 
maner of appels, the crabtree stocke is beste. 

Select the 

Saw the 

cleave and 
open the 
stock ; 

138. % Howe to graffe. 

Thou muste get thy graffes of the fayrest lanses, that 
thou canste fynde on the tree, and see that it haue a good 
knotte or ioynte, and an euen. Than take thy sawe, and 

4 sawe in-to thy c[r]abbetree, in a fayre playne place, pare it 
euen with thy knyfe, and thanne cleaue the stocke with 
thy greatte knyfe and thy mallet, and set in a wedge, and 
open the stocke, accordynge to the thyckenesse of thy 

8 graffe ; thanne take thy smalle sharpe knyfe, and cutte 
the graffe on bothe sydes in the ioynte, but passe not the 

139. Another way of grafting. 89 

myddes therof for nothynge, and let the inner syde, that 

shall be set in-to the stocke, be a lyttel thynner than the 

12 vtter syde, and the nether poynte of the graffe the 

thvnner : than proferre thy graffe in-to the stocke ; and the ° P nt the 

r J ° graft into 

if it go not close, than cut the graffe or the stocke, tyll the stock, 
they close cleane, that thou canste not put the edge of 

16 thy knyfe on neyther syde betwene the stocke and the [Foi. 56*.] 
graffe, and sette them so that the toppes of the graffe 
bende a lyttell outewarde, and see that the wodde of the 
graffe be set mete with the wodde of the stocke, and the 

20 sappe of the stocke maye renne streyght and euen with 

the sappe of the graffe. For the barke of the graffe is The bark of 

rr ° ° the graft is 

neuer soo thicke as the barke of the stocke. And ther- thinner than 

that of the 

fore thou mayste not sette the barkes mete on the vtter stock. 

24 syde, but on the inner syde : than pulle awaye thy wedge, 
and it wyl stande moche faster. Than take toughe cleye, 
lvke marley, and ley it vppon the stocke-heed, and with 
thy fynger laye it close vnto the graffe, and a lyttel vnder 

28 the heed, to kepe it moyst, and that no wynde come into 

the stocke at the cleauynge. Than take mosse, and lave Cover with 

moss, and 

thervpon, for chynynge of the claye : than take a baste hind with 
of whyte wethy or elme, or halfe a bryer, and bynd the 

32 mosse, the clay, and the graffe together, but be well ware, 
that thou breake not thy graffe, neyther in the clayenge, 
nor in the byndynge ; and thou muste set some-thinge 
by the graffe, that crowes, nor byrdes do not lyght vpon 

36 thy graffe, for if they do, they wil breake hym, &c. 

139. \ To graffe bytwene the barke and the tree. [Foi. 5 6»a.] 

There is an other maner of graffinge than this, and 
soner done, & soner to growe : but it is more ieoperdy for 
winde whan it begynneth to growe. Thou muste sawe Another 
4 thy stocke, and pare the heed therof, as thou diddest grafting, 
before, but cleue it not : than take thy graffe, and cut it in 
the ioynt to the myddes, and make the tenaunte therof 



140. Stone fruits and nuts. 

Use a punch 
of hard 

The graft 
from the 


halfe an inche longe or a lyttell more, all on the one syde, 
8 and pare the barke awaye a lyttel at the poynt on the 
other syde : than thou muste haue made redy a ponch of 
harde wood, with a stop and a tenaunte on the one syde, 
lyke to the tenaunte of the graffe. Than put the tenaunt 

12 of the ponche betwen the barke and the woode of the 
stocke, and pull it out agayne, and put in the graffe, 
and se that it ioyne close, or els mende it. And this 
can-not fayle, for now the sappe cometh on euery syde, 

16 but it wyl spring soo faste, that if it stande on playne 
grounde, the wynde is lykelye to blowe it besyde the 
heed, for it hath no fastnes in the wodde. And this is 
beste remedy for blowynge of, to cutte or clyppe awaye 

20 somme of the nethermooste leaues as they growe. And 
this is the beste waye to graffe, and specyally a greate 
tree : than claye it, and bynde it as dyddest the other, &c. 


Filberts and 

140. f To nourishe all maner of stone finite, and nuttes. 

As for cheryes, dampsons, bulleys, plummes, and suche 
other, maye be sette of stones, and also of the scyences, 
growynge aboute the tree, of the same, for they wyll 

4 sooneste beare. Fylberdes and walnuttes maye be set of 
the nuttes in a gardeyne, and after remoued and sette 
where he wyll. But whan they be remoued, they wolde 
be set vpon as good a grounde, or a better, or els they 

8 wyll not lyke. 

Get a copy 
of this book, 
and read it 
beginning to 

141. ^ A shorte information for a yonge gentyl-man, that 
entendeth to thryue. 

I auyse hym to gette a copy of this presente boke, 

and to rede it frome the begynnynge to the endynge, 

wherby he maye perceyue the chapyters and contentes 

4 of the same, and by reason of ofte redyng, he maye 

waxe perfyte, what shulde be doone at all seasons. For 

141. How to thrive. 91 

I lerned two verses at grammar-scole, and they be these : [Foi.57*.] 
Gutta cauat lapidem non vi, sed scepe cadendo : Sic homo fit cf. Ovid, ex 


8 sapiens non vi, sed scepe legendo : A droppe of water perseth Epist. iv. 

a stoone, not al-onely by his owne strengthe, but by his 

often fallynge. Ryghte so a man shall be made wjse, 

not all-onely by hym-selfe, but by his ofte redynge. And 

12 soo maye this yonge gentyllman, accordynge to the 

season of the yere, rede to his seruauntes what chapyter Read a 

c c chapter 

he wyll. And also for any other maner of profyte con- to your 


teyned in the same, the whiche is necessary for a yonge now and 


16 husbande, that hath not the experyence of housbandrye, 
nor other thynges conteyned in this presente boke, to 
take a good remembraunce and credence thervnto, for 
there is an olde sayinge, but of what auctorytie I can- 

20 not tell : Quod melior est practica rusticorum, yuam scientia 
philosophorum. It is better the practiue or knowlege of Practice is 

better than 

an husband-man well proued, than the science or con- theory, 
nynge of a philosopher not proued, for there is nothynge 

2 1 touchyng husbandry, and other profytes conteyned in 
this presente booke, but I haue hadde the experyence 
therof, and proued the same. And ouer and beside al 
this boke, I wil aduise him to ryse betime in the morning, 

28 according to the verse before spoke of, Sanat, sanciificat, [Foi. 58.: 
et ditat surgere mane: And go about his closes, pastures, 
fieldes, and specially by the hedges, & to haue in his 
purse a payre of tables, and whan he seeth any-thing, Keep a pair 

32 that wolde be amended, to wryte it in his tables : as if he and make 

notes of all 

fynde any horses, mares, beastes, shepe, swyne, or geese that seems 


in his pastures, that be not his owne : And perauenture 
thoughe they be his owne, he wolde not haue them to 

36 goo there, or to fynde a gap, or a sherde in his hedge, 
or any water standynge in his pastures vppon his grasse, 
wherby he maye take double hurte, bothe losse of his 
grasse, and rotting of his shepe and calues. And also 

40 of standynge-water in his corne-fieldes at the landes 

92 141. How to thrive. 

endes, or sydes, and howe he wolde haue his landes 
Look to the plowed, donged, sturred, or sowen. And his corne weded 
ditches, etc. or s horne or his cattell shifted out of one pasture into 
44 an other, and to loke what dychyng, quicsettyng, or plash- 
ing, is necessary to be had, and to ouer-se his shepeherd, 
how he handleth and ordreth his shepe, and his seruantes 
Look to the howe they plowe and do theyr warkes, or if any gate 


48 be broken down, or want any staues, and go not lyghtly 

to open and tyne, and that it do not traile, and that the 

windes blowe it not open, with many mo necessary 

[Foi. 58*.] thynges that are to be loked vpon. For a man alwaye 

52 wanderynge or goinge aboute somewhat, fyndeth or seeth 

that is a-mysse, and wolde be amended. And as soone 

as he seeth any suche defautes, than let hym take oute his 

tables, and wryte the defautes. And whan he commeth 

56 home to diner, supper, or at nyght, than let hym call his 

T e "y° ur bayly, or his heed-seruaunte, and soo shewe hym the 

to a be n done defautes, that they may be shortly amended. And whan 

it is amended, than let him put it out of his tables. For 

60 this vsed I to doo .x. or .xii. yeres and more. And thus 

let hym vse dayely, and in shorte space he shall sette 

moche thynges in good order, but dayely it wyll haue 

ifyou mendynge. And yf he canne not wryte, let hym nycke 

write, make 64 the defautes vppon a stycke, and to shewe his bayely, as 

stick - I sayde before. Also take hede bothe erly and late, at 

all tymes, what maner of people resorte and comme to thy 

house, and the cause of theyr commynge, and specially 

68 if they brynge with them pytchers, cannes, tancardes, 

Keepaneye bottelles, bagges, wallettes, or busshell-pokes. For if thy 

ln I do n naii seruauntes be not true, they maye doo the great hurte, 

yowWe? and them-selfe lyttel auauntage. Wherfore they wolde be 

72 well loked vppon. And he that hath .ii. true seruauntes, 

a man-seruaunte, and an-other a woman-seruaunt, he hath 

[Foi. 59] a great treasure, for a trewe seruaunte wyl do iustly hym- 

selfe, and if he se his felowes do amysse, he wyl byd them 

142. Hexameter verses. 93 

76 do no more so, for if they do, he wyll shewe his master 
therof : and if he do not this, he is not a trewe seruaunt. 

142. \ A lesson made in Englisshe verses, to teache a gentyl- 
mans seruaunt, to saye at euery tyme whan he 
taketh his horse, for his remembraunce, that he shall 
not forget his gere in his inne behynde hym. 

Pvrse, dagger, cloke, nyght-cap, kerchef, shoyng-horne, Heiamet 

boget, and shoes. gjjf 

Spere, male, hode, halter, sadelclothe, spores, hatte, with memQT J- 

thy horse-combe. 
Bowe, arrowes, sworde, bukler, home, leisshe, gloues, 

stringe, and thy bracer. 
4 Penne, paper, inke, parchmente, reedwaxe, pommes, 

bokes, thou remember. 
Penknyfe, combe, thimble, nedle, threde, poynte, leste 

that thy gurthe breake. 
Bodkyn, knyfe, lyngel, gyue thy horse meate, se he be 

showed well. 
Make mery, synge and thou can ; take hede to thy gere, 

that thou lose none. 

143. *[ A prologue for the wyues occupation. 
Nowe thou husbande, that haste doone thy dylygence 
and labour, that longeth to an husbande, to get thy 
lyuynge, thy wyues, thy chyldrens, and thy seruauntes : 
4 yet are there other thynges, that muste nedes be done, seldom 
or elles thou shalte not thryue. For there is an olde h u sblnd he 
common sayenge, that seldom doth the housbande thryue, wife'° u ieave. 
withoute the leue of his wyfe. By this sayenge it shoulde 
8 seme, that there be other occupations and labours, that 
be moste conuenient for the wyues to do. And howe be 
it that I haue not experyence of al theyr occupations and 1 win tell 
warkes, as I haue of husbandry, yet a lyttell wyl I speke P art^!f Uieir 
1 2 what they ought to do, though I tel them nat howe they 
shulde doo and exercyse theyr labours and occupations. 


144. A lesson for the wife. 

A lesson of 

[Fol. 60.] 

A lesson of 

either idle- 
ness or 

144. f A lesson for the wyfe. 

But yet er I begynne to shewe the wyfe, what warkes 
she shall do, I wyll firste teche her a lesson of Salomon, 
as I did to her husbande a lesson of the philosopher, 
4 and that is, that she shulde not be ydle at noo tyme : 
for Salomon saythe, Ociosus non gaudebit cum electis in 
ccelo : sed lugebit in ozternum cum reprobis in inferno : That 
is to say, The ydle folke shall not ioye with the chosen 
8 folkes in heuen, but they shall sorowe with the reproued 
and forsaken folkes in hell. And saynt Iherom saythe : 
Semper boni open's aliquid facito, vt te diabolus inueniat 
occupatum : Quia sicut in aqua stante generantur vermes : sic 

1 2 in homine ocioso generantur mala cogitationes : That is to say, 
Alwaye be doinge of some good werkes, that the dyuell 
may fynde the euer occupied : for as in standynge water 
are engendred wormes, ryghte soo in an ydle body are 

16 engendred ydle thoughtes. Here mayste thou se, that 
of ydelnes commeth damnation, and of good warkes and 
labour cometh saluation. Nowe arte thou at thy lyberty, 
to chose whether waye thou wylt, wherin is a great 

20 diuersitie. And he is an vnhappy man or woman, that 
god hath giuen bothe wyt and reason, and putteth hym 
in chose, and woll chose the worst parte. Nowe thou 
wyfe, I trust to shewe to the dyuers occupations, warkes, 

24 and laboures, that thou shalt not nede to be ydle no tyme 
of the yere. 

Let the wife 
love her 

[Fol. 60*.] 

Matt. xix. 5. 
M ark x. 7 . 

145. f What thynges the wyfe is bounden of ryght to do. 

First and prynycypally the wyfe is bounde of ryghte to 
loue her housbande, aboue father and mother, and aboue 
all other men. For our lorde saythe in his gospell ; 
4 Relinquet patrem et matrem, et adherebif 1 vxori sua : A man 
shulde leue father and mother, and drawe to his wyfe : 
and the same wyse a wyfe shulde do to her husbande. 
1 Printed abherebit. 

146. General duties of a wife. 95 

And are made by the vertue of the sacrament of holy 
8 scripture one fleshe, one bloude, one body, and two One body, 

r * and two 

soules. Wherfore theyr hartes, theyr myndes, theyr souls - 
warkes, and occupations, shulde be all one, neuer to 
seuer nor chaunge durynge theyr natural lyues, by any 
12 mannes acte or dede, as it is sayde in the same gospel: 

Quod deus coniunxit, homo non separet: That thynge that Matt. xix. 9. 

Mark x. 9. 

god hath ioyned to-gether, noo man maye seuer nor 
departe. Wherfore it is conuenyente that they loue 
16 eche other as effectually as they wolde doo theyr owne 
selfe, &c. 

146. \ What warkes a wyfe shulde do in generall. 
First in a mornyng whan thou arte waked, and pur- First, at 

rising, bless 

poseste to ryse, lyfte vp thy hande, and blesse the, and thyself, 
make a sygne of the holy crosse, In nomine pain's, et filii, 

4 et spiritus sancti. Amen. In the name of the father, the 

sonne, and the holy gooste. And if thou saye a Pater [Foi. 61.] 
noster, an Aue, and a Crede, and remember thy maker, 
thou shalte spede moche the better. And whan thou arte 

8 vp and redy, than first swepe thy house, dresse vp thy Sweep the 


dyssheborde, and sette all thynges in good order within 

thy house : milke thy kye, socle ' thy calues, sye vp thy m ' lk the 

r J cows, dress 

mylke, take vppe thy chyldren and araye theym, and the children. 

12 prouyde for thy husbandes brekefaste, dynner, souper, 
and for thy chyldren and seruauntes, and take thy parte 
with theym. And to ordeyne come and malte to the Send com to 
myll, to bake and brue withall whanne nede is. And measure u nJ 

16 meete it to the myll, and fro the myll, and se that thou e t£. ext 
haue thy measure agayne besyde the tolle, or elles the 
myller dealeth not truely with the, or els thy come is not 
drye as it shoulde be. Thou must make butter, and chese Makebutter 

20 whan thou maist, seme thy swyne bothe mornyng and a ° ° eesc " 
euenynge, and gyue thy poleyn meate in the momynge ; 
1 Printed secle. 

g6 146. General duties of a wife. 

and whan tyme of the yere cometh, thou must take hede 
Gather the howe thy hennes, duckes, and geese do ley, and to gather 


24 vp theyr egges, and whan they waxe brodye, to sette 
them there as noo beastes, swyne, nor other vermyn 
hurte them. And thou muste knowe, that all hole-footed 
fowles wyll sytte a moneth, and all clouen-footed fowles 

[Foi.6i3.] 28 wyll sytte but three wekes, excepte a peyhenne, and greatte 
fowles, as cranes, bustardes, and suche other. And whan 
they haue broughte forthe theyr byrdes, to see that they 
be well kepte from the gleyd, crowes, fullymartes, and 

Put in order 32 other vermynne. And in the begynnynge of Marche, or 
a lyttell afore, is tyme for a wyfe to make her garden, and 
to gette as many good sedes and herbes as she canne, 
and specially suche as be good for the potte, and to eate : 
36 and as ofte as nede shall requyre, it muste be weded, for 
els the wedes wyl ouergrowe the herbes. And also in 
Marche is tyme to sowe flaxe and hempe, for I haue 

Better are harde olde houswyues saye, that better is Marche hurdes 

March hards 

than April 40 than Apryll flaxe, the reason appereth : but howe it 


shulde be sowen, weded, pulled, repeyled, watred, 

wasshen, dryed, beaten, braked, tawed, hecheled, spon, 

wounden, wrapped, and wouen, it nedeth not for me to 

44 shewe, for they be wise ynough ; and therof may they 

Make make shetes, bordclothes, towels, shertes, smockes, and 


towels, and suche other necessaryes, and therfore let thy dystaffe 


be alwaye redye for a pastyme, that thou be not 

48 ydle. And vndouted a woman can-not gette her lyuynge 

honestely with spynnynge on the distaffe, but it stoppeth 

[Foi. 62.] a gap, and muste nedes be had. The bolles of flaxe, 

whan they be ripeled of, must be rideled from the wedes, 

Drytheflax. 52 and made drye with the son, to get out the sedes. Howe 

be it one maner of linsede, called loken sede, wyll not 

open by the son : and therfore, whan they be drye, they 

muste be sore brused and broken, the wiues knowe howe, 

56 and than winowed and kepte drye, tyll yere- tyme come 

146. General duties of a wife. 97 

agayn. Thy female he/wpe must be pulled from the 
churle hempe, for that beareth no sede, and thou must 
do by it, as thou dydest by the flax. The churle hempe 
60 beareth sede, and beware that byrdes eate it not, as it 
groweth : the hewp therof is not soo good as the female 
hempe, but yet it wyll do good seruyce. May fortune Sometimes 
somtime, that thou shalt haue so many thinges to do, that great deal 

* to do. 

64. thou shalt not well knowe where is best to begyn. Than 
take hede, which thing shulde be the greattest losse, if 
it were not done, and in what space it wold be done : 
than thinke what is the greatest losse, & there begyn. 

68 But in case that thynge, that is of greateste losse, wyll I ^ ve *** 
be longe in doynge, and thou myghteste do thre or foure ^* ch ^i 11 
other thynges in the meane whyle, thanne loke well, if 
all these thynges were sette together, whiche of them 

72 were the greattest losse ; and if all these thynges be of 

greater losse, and may be all done in as shorte space, as [Foi. 62*.] 
the other, than doo thy many thynges fyrste. 

^f It is conuenyente for a housbande to haue shepe of 

76 his owne, for many causes, and than maye his wife haue 

part of the woll, to make her husbande and her-selfe w 'th «""« 

of the wool 

some clothes. And at the leaste wave, she may haue the make 

J ■ clothes. 

lockes of the shepe, eyther to make clothes or blankettes 
80 & couerlettes, or bothe. And if she haue no woll of her 
owne, she maye take wol to spynne of clothe-makers, and 
by that meanes she maye haue a conuenyent lyuynge, and 
many tymes to do other warkes. It is a wyues occupation, 
84 to wynowe all maner of comes, to make malte, to wasshe winnow 

corn, brew, 

and wrynge, to make heye, shere corne, and in tyme of wash, make 

hay, etc. 

nede to helpe her husbande to fyll the mucke-wayne or 
dounge-carte, dryue the ploughe, to loode hey, corne, and 
88 suche other. And to go or ride to the market, to sel butter, Sell the 

° ' butter, 

chese, mylke, egges, chekyns, capons, hennes, pygges, cheese, 
gese, and all maner of cornes. And also to bye all maner and corn - 
of necessarye thynges belongynge to houssholde, and to Kee P 

*■" accounts. 

9 8 

147. Moderation in spending. 

[Fol. 63.] 

I will not 
explain all 
points of 

Else I 
should act 
like the 
Knight de 
la Tour, 

who wrote 
a book 
against vice, 

but really 
taught vice 

[Fol. 63*.] 

92 make a trewe rekenynge and a-compte to her housbande, 
what she hath payed. And yf the housbande go to the 
market, to bye or sell, as they ofte do, he than to shewe 
his wife in lyke maner. For if one of them shoulde vse 
96 to deceyue the other, he deceyueth hym-selfe, and he is 
not lyke to thryue. And therfore they muste be trewe 
eyther to other. I coulde peraduenture shewe the hous- 
bandes dyuerse poyntes that the wyues deceyue them 

100 in: and in lyke maner, howe husbandes deceyue theyr 
wyues : but if I shulde do so, I shulde shewe mo subtyll 
poyntes of deceypt, than eyther of them knewe of before. 
And therfore me semeth beste to holde my peace, least 

104 I shoulde do as the knyght of the toure dyd, the whiche 
had many fayre doughters, and of fatherly loue that he 
oughte to them, he made a boke, to a good entente, that 
they myghte eschewe and flee from vyces, and folowe 

108 vertues. In the whiche boke he shewed, that if they 
were wowed, moued, or styred by any man, after suche 
a maner as he there shewed, that they shulde withstande 
it. In the whiche boke he shewed so many wayes, howe 

112a man shoulde atteyne to his purpose, to brynge a woman 
to vice, the whiche wayes were so naturall, and the wayes 
to come to theyr purpose were soo subtylly contryued, 
and craftely shewed, that harde it wold be for any woman 

1 1 6 to resyste or deny theyr desyre. And by the sayd boke 
hath made bothe the men and the women to knowe more 
vyces, subtyltye, and crafte, than euer they shulde haue 
knowen, if the boke had not ben made : in the whiche 

120 boke he named hym-selfe the knight of the towre. And 
thus I leue the wyues, to vse theyr occupations at theyr 
owne discreation. 

Take care. 

147. f To kepe measure in spendynge. 

Nowe thou husbande and huswyfe, that haue done 

148. Eat within thy tetJier. 99 

your diligence and cure, accordynge to the fyrste artycle 
of the philosopher, that is to saye : Adhibe curam. And 

4 also haue well remembred the sayeng of wyse Salomon : 
Quod ociosus non gaudebit cum eleciis in calo : sed lugebit in 
(Eternum cum reprobis in inferno : Thanne ye must remem- 
bre, obserue, and kepe in mind, the seconde article of 

8 the sayinge of the philosopher, that is to saye, Tene 
mensuram : That is to saye in englysshe, holde and kepe Keep 


measure. And accordynge to that sayenge, I lerned two 

verses at grammer-schole, and they be these, Qui plus ex- Spendthrifts 

1 2 pendit, quam rerum copia rendit : Non admiretur, si pauper- poverty. 
tale graueiur: he that dothe more expende, thanne his 
goodes wyll extende, meruayle it shall not be, thoughe 
he be greued with pouertee. And also accordynge to [Foi. 64.] 

16 that sayenge speketh sayncte Paul and saythe, Iuxta 
facultates faciendi sunt sump/us, ne longi lemporis vic/um, 
breuis hora consumat : That is to saye, Aff Iter thy faculty Spend 

■''--• ■> - according 

or thy honoure, make thyne expences, leste thou spende jo your 
20 in shorte space ' that thynge, that thou shouldest lyue 
by longe. This texte toucheth euery manne, from the 
hyest degree to the loweste ; wherfore it is necessary to 
euerye manne and womanne to remembre and take good 
24 hede there-vnto, for to obserue, kepe, and folowe the 
same ; but bycause this texte of sayncte Paule is in latyn, 
and husbandes commonely can but lyttell laten, I fere 
leaste they can-not vnderstande it. And thoughe it or, in plain 

J ° English, 

28 were declared ones or twyse to theym, that they wolde 
forgette it : Wherfore I shall shewe to theym a texte 
in englysshe, and that they maye well vnderstande, and 
that is this, Eate within thy tedure. eat within 

* your tether. 

148. *[ To eate within the tedure. 

Thou husbande and huswife, that intend to folowe 
the sayinge of the philosopher, that is to saye, kepe 

100 148. Eat within thy tether. 

brink! not' at measure, you muste spare at the brynke, and not at the 

[Fol.644.]' 4 bottom, that is to vnderstande, in the begynnynge of 

the yere, sellynge of thy cornes, or spendynge in thy 

house, vnto the tyme that thou haue sowen agayne thy 

wynter-corne, and thy lente-corne, and than se what 

8 remayneth to serue thy house, and of the ouerplus thou 

mayste sell and bye suche other necessaryes, as thou must 

Do not m nedes occupie. And if thou spende it in the begynnynge 

spend much 

at the of the yere, and shall want in the hynder ende, than 

beginning of 

the year. 12 thou doste not eate within thy tedure, and at the laste 

thou shalte be punyshed, as I shal proue the by ensample. 

Take thy horse, and go tedure him vpon thyne owne 

lees, flytte hym as ofte as thou wylte, no manne wyll 

16 saye ' wronge thou doste'; but make thy horse to longe 

Give not a tedure, than whan thou haste tyed hym vppon thyne 

your horse ' m 

too long a owne lees, his tedure is so longe, that it recheth to the 


middes of an-other mans lees or corner Nowe haste 
20 thou gyuen hym to moche lybertye, and that man, whose 
come or grasse thy horse hath eaten, wyll be greued at 
the, and wyll cause the to be amerced in the court, or 
elles to make hym amendes, or bothe. And if thy 

if the horse 24 horse breake his tedure, and go at large in euery mans 

tether, corne and grasse, than commeth the pynder, and taketh 

hym, and putteth hym in the pynfolde, and there shall 

[Foi. 65.] he stande in prison, without any meate, vnto the tyme 

28 thou hast payde his raunsome to the pynder, and also 

he will be make amendes to thy neyghbours, for distroyenge of 


theyr corne. Ryght so, as long as thou eatest within 
wherefore, thy tedure, that thou nedest not to begge nor borowe of 

'eat within J °° 

thy tether.' ^ 2 noo man, soo longe shalte thou encrease and growe in 
rychesse, and euery man wyll be content with the. And 
if thou make thy tedure to longe, that thyne owne 
porcyon wyll not serue the, but that thou shalte begge, 
36 borowe, or bye of other: that wyll not longe endure, 
but thou shalte fall in-to pouertye. And if thou breake 

149. A lesson for tJie husband. 101 

thy tedure, and ren ryot at large, and knowe not other ^ a ^ ot our 
mennes goodes frome thyne owne, than shall the pynder, tether. 

40 that is to save, the sheryffe and the bayly, areste the, 
and putte the in the pynfolde, that is to say, in prison, 
there to abyde tyll the truth be knowen : and it is 
meruayle, if thou scape with thy lyfe, and therfore eate 

44 within thy tedure. 

149. A shorte lesson, for the husbande. 
One thinge I wyl aduise the to remembre, and specially Do not 


in wynter-tyme, wha« thou sytteste by the fyre, and hast candle-light, 
supped, to consyder in thy mynde, whether the warkes, 
4 that thou, thy wyfe, & thy seruauntes shall do, be more [Foi. 65*.] 
auauntage to the than the fyre, and candell-lyghte, meate 
and drynke that they shall spende, and if it be more 
auantage, than syt styll : and if it be not, than go to thy Rathergoto 

bed, and 

8 bedde and slepe, and be vppe betyme, and breake thy rise early, 
faste before day, that thou mayste be all the shorte 
wynters day about thy busynes. At grammer-scole I 
lerned a verse, that is this, Sana/, sanciificat, et ditat Early rising 

makes a 

1 2 surgere mane. That is to say, Erly rysyng maketh a man man 
hole in body, holer in soule, and rycher in goodes. And ho 'y, and 

* " rich. 

this me semeth shuld be sufficient instruction for the 
husbande to kepe measure. 

150. J How men of hye degree do kepe measure. 
To me it is doubtefull, but yet me semeth, they be Men of high 

degree are 

rather to lyberall in expences, than to scarce, and too prodigal 

and waste- 

specyally in three thynges. The fyrste is prodigalytie in foi. 
4 outragious and costely aray, fer aboue measure ; the 
seconde thynge is costely charge of delycyous meates and 
drynkes ; the thyrde is outragious playe and game, ferre 
aboue measure. And nowe to the fyrste poynle. 


151. Prodigality in dress. 

[Fol. 66.] 

I have seen 
of apparel 
very mode- 
rate as com- 
pared with 
what isworn 

Other men 
try to dress 
like them. 

dress too 

[Fol. 663.] 

The proud 
man is a 
child of the 

151. % Prodigalite in outragious and costely aray. 

I haue seen bokes of accompte of the yomen of the 
wardropes of noble men, and also inuewtorys made after 
theyr decease of their apparell, and I doubte not but at 
4 this daye, it is .xx. tymes more in value, than it was to 
suche a man of degree as he was an .C. yere a-go : and 
many tymes it is gyuen away, er it be halfe worne, to a 
symple man, the whiche causeth hym to weare the same ; 
8 and an other symple man, or a lyttell better, seynge him 
to weare suche rayment, thynketh in his mynde, that he 
maye were as good rayment as he, and so causeth hym to 
bye suche other, to his great coste and charge, aboue 

12 measure, and an yll ensample to all other : and also to see 
mens seruantes so abused in theyr aray, theyr cotes be so 
syde, that they be fayne to tucke them vp whan theyryde, 
as women do theyr kyrtels whan they go to the market or 

1 6 other places, the whiche is an vnconuenient syght. And 
ferthermore, they haue suche pleytes vpon theyr brestes, 
and ruffes vppon theyr sleues, aboue theyr elbowes, 
that yf theyr mayster, or theym-selfe hadde neuer so 

20 greatte nede, they coude not shoote one shote, to hurte 
theyr ennemyes, tyll they hadde caste of theyr cotes, or cut 
of theyr sleues. This is fer aboue measure, or common 
weale of the realme. This began fyrste with honour, 

24 worship, and honesty, and it endeth in pryde, presumption, 
and pouertye. Wherof speketh saint Austin, Quemcunque 
superbum esse videris, diaboli filium. esse ne dubites : That is 
to say, who-so-euer thou seest that is proude, dout the not, 

28 but he is the diuels chylde. Wherfore agaynst pryde he 
byddeth the remembre : Quid fnisti, quid es, et qua/is post 
mortem eris : That is to say, what thou were, what thou 
art, and what thou shalte be after thy death. And S. 

32 Bernarde saythe, Homo nihil aliud est, yuam sperma 
felidum, saccus slercorum, et esca vermium : That is to saye, 

152. Prodigality in feasting. 103 

A man is nothynge but stynkynge fylthe, a sacke of Man is but 
dounge, and wormes meate. The whiche sayinges wolde meat. 
36 be remewbred, and than me semeth this is sufficient at this 
time for the first point of the thre. 

152. «i Of delycyouse meates and drynkes. 

Howe costely are the charges of delycious meates & 
drynkes, that be nowe most commonly vsed, ouer that it 
hath ben in tymes paste, and howe fer aboue measure ? 
4 For I haue seen bokes of accompte of householde, t/f'i 6 ?: no 

' * fol. 67.] 

and brumentes vpon the same, & I doubte not, but 

in delycyous meates, drinkes, and spyces, there is at Men now 

spend four 

this daye foure tymes so moche spent, as was at these time ? *» 

J J much upon 

8 dayes, to a lyke man in degree ; and yet at that tyme ^ ts ** 
there was as moche befe and mutton spent as is nowe, 
and as many good housholdes kept, and as many 
yomenne wayters therin as be nowe. This began with 

12 loue and charytye whan a lorde, gentylman, or yoman 
desyred or prayed an other to come to dyner or soupper, 
and bycause of his commynge he wolde haue a dysshe 
or two mo than he wolde haue had, if he had ben 

16 away. Than of very loue he, remembrynge howe louyngely This has 

come about 

he was bydden to dynner, and howe well he fared, he gradually, 
thynketh of very' kyndnes he muste nedes byd hym to 
dyner agayne, and soo ordeyneth for hym as manye maner 
20 of suche dysshes and meates, as the other man dyd, and 
two or .iii. mo, & thus by lyttel and litell it is commen fer 
aboue measure. And begon of loue and charyte, and Begun in 

kindness, it 

endeth in pryde and glotony, wherof saynte Ierome eD ?* in 
24 saythe : Qui post carnem ambulant, in ventrem et libidinem Jerome. 
proni sunt, quasi irrationabilia iumenta reputantur. That is 
to say, They that walke, and be redy to fulfill the lust of [Fol. 68*.] 
the fleshe and the bely, are taken as vnreasonable beastes ; 
28 and sayncte Gregory sayth, Doniinanie vicio gulce, omnes Gregory. 


153. Excess in gaming. 

virtuies per luxuriant et vanam gloriam obruuntur : That is 
to saye, where the vice of glotony hath domination, all 
vertues by luxury and vayne glory are cast vnder : the 
32 whiche sayinges wold in lykewise be remembred ; and 
this me semeth sufficient for the .ii. poynte of the thre. 

Have some 

Cato, Dis- 
tich, iii. 7. 

Poor men 
now play 
too high. 

[Fol. 69.] I 2 

If men 
played for 
less, it 
might then 
be called 


Rut now 
men lose 
their lands 24. 
and become 

153. ^ Of outragious playe and game. 

It is conueniente for euery man, of what degree that he 
be of, to haue playe & game accordynge to his degree. 
For Cato sayth, Inlerpone tuis interdum gaudia curis : Amonge 
thy charges and busynes thou muste haue sometyme ioye 
and myrthe ; but nowe a-dayes it is doone ferre aboue 
measure. For nowe a poore man in regarde wyll playe 
as great game, at all maner games, as gentylman were 
wont to do, or greater, and gentilmen as lordes, and 
lordes as prynces, & ofte tymes the great estates wyll 
call gentylmen or yomen to play with them at as great 
game as they do, and they call it a disport, the whiche 
me semeth a very trewe name to it, for it displeaseth 
some of them er they departe, and specyall god, for 
myspendynge of his goodes and tyme. But if they 
played smalle games, that the poore man that playeth 
myght beare it thoughe he loste, and bate not his 
countenaunce, than myght it be called a good game, a 
good playe, a good sporte, and a pastyme. But whan 
one shall lose vpon a day, or vpon a nyght, as moche 
money as wold fynde hym and all his house meate and 
drynke a moneth or a quarter of a yere or more, that 
maye be well called a disporte, or a displeasure, and ofte 
tymes, by the meanes therof, it causeth theym to sell theyr 
landes, dysheryte the heyres, and may fortune to fall to 
thefte, robbery, or suche other, to the great hurte of them- 
selfe, & of theyr chyldren, and to the displeasure of god : 
and they so doinge, lyttel do they pondre or regarde the 

154. Third saying of the philosopJier. 105 

28 saying of saynt Paule ; Iuxta facilitates faciendi sunt 
sumptus, ne longi temporis victum breuis hora consumat : 
This plav beerun with loue and charity, and oft times Play, begun 

r ' ° .in love, 

it endeth with couetous wrath and enuy. And this me ends in 


32 thynketh shoulde be a sufficient instruction for kepynge 
of measure. 

154. *[ A prologue of the thyrde sayinge of the 

Nowe thou housbande and housewife, that haue done [Foi. 69^.] 
your diligence and cure about your husbandrye and hus- 
wyfry, accordynge to the fyrste sayenge of the philoso- 
4. pher, Adhibe curam : And also haue well remembred and ?*? atten - 

~ r ' tion ; 

fulfylled the seconde sayinge of the sayde philosopher, 

Tene mensuram : I doubte not but ye be ryche accordyng Be frugal; 

and thou 

to the thyrde sayinge of the sayde philosopher, Et en's shah be 


8 diues. Nowe I haue shewed you the sayinge of the 
philosopher, wherby you haue goten moche worldely 
possession, me semeth it were necessary, to shewe you 
howe ye maye gette heuenly possessions, accordynge to 

12 the sayenge of our lorde in his gospel, Quid prodest **.***• ^ 
homini, si vniuersum mundum lucretur, animce vero sues detri- 
menium paciatur: What profyteth it to a man, thoughe 
he wyn all the worlde, to the hyndraunce and losyng 

1 6 of his soule ? Howe be it, it shoulde seme vncon- 
uenient for a temporall man to take vpon hym to shewe 
or teache any suche spirytuall matters ; and yet there is 
a great diuersytie betwene predication and doctrine. 

155. \ A diuersitie betwene predication and doctrine. 

As sayncte Iherome saythe, there is greate difference or [Foi. 70.] 
diuersitie betwene preachinge and doctrine. A preachyng Difference 

. 1-. t . between 

or a sermon is, where [_isj a conuocation or a gatherynge preaching 

and doc- 

4 of people on holye dayes, or other dayes in churches or tri °e. 



156. What is riches. 

Every man 
may teach. 

i Pet. iv. 10. 

other places, and times sette and ordeyned for the 
same. And it belongeth to theym that be ordeyned 
there-vnto, and haue iurisdiction and auctorytie, and to 
8 none other. But euery man may lawefully enforme and 
teache his brother, or any other, at euery tyme and place 
behouable, if it seme expedient to hym, for that is an 
almes-dede, to the whiche euery man is holden & 

12 bounde to do, accordyng to the sayenge of saynt 
Peter, Vnusquisque, sicut accepit gratiam, in alterutrum 
Mam administrare debet. That is to saye, as euery man 
hath taken or receyued grace, he oughte to mynyster 
Chrysostom. 1 6 and shewe it forthe to other. For as Chrisostome saythe, 
great merite is to hym, and a great reward he shall haue 
in tyme to come, the which writeth or causeth to be 
writen, holy doctrine, for that entent, that he may se in 

20 it, howe he may lyue holylye, and that other may haue 
it, that they maye be edyfyed or sanctyfyed by the same ; 
for he saythe surely, knowe thou, that howe many soules 
be saued by the, soo many rewardes thou shalte haue for 

24 eyther. For saynt Gregory saythe, Nullum sacrificium ita 
placet deo, sicut zelus animarum. : There is no sacrifyce 
that pleaseth god so moche, as the loue of soules. And 
also he saythe, Ille apud deum maior est in amore, qui ad 

28 eius amor em plurimos He is greateste in fauour 
with god, that draweth moste men to the loue of god. 
Wherfore me semeth, it is corauenient to enforme and 
shewe them, how they maye gette heuenly possessions, 

32 as well as I haue shewed them to get worldly possessions. 
Than to my purpose, and to the poynt where I lefte, 
' nowe thou art ryche.' 

[Fol. 70&3 


What is 

156. % What is rychesse. 

It is to be vnderstande what is rychesse; and as me 
semeth, rychesse is that thynge, that is of goodnes, and 
can-not be taken awaye from the owner, neylher in his 

156. WJiat is ricltes. 107 

4 temporall lyfe, nor in the lyfe euerlastynge. Than these 
worldly possessions, that I haue spoken of, is no richesse, 
for why they be but floures of the worlde. And that may 
be wel consydered by lob, the whiche was the rychest 
8 man of worldely possessions, that was lyuynge in those 
daies, and sbdeynely he was the poorest man agayne that [Foi. 71.] 
coulde be lyuynge, and all the whyle he toke pacyence, and 
was content, as appereth by his sayenge, Dominus dedit, Job i. 21. 

1 2 dominus abstulit : sicut domino placuit, ita factum est, sit 
nomen domini benedictum : Our lorde hath gyuen it, our 
lorde hath taken it awaye, and as it pleaseth our lorde, 
so be it, blessed be the name of our lorde. The whiche 

16 lob may be an ensample to euery true chrysten man, of 
his pacyence and good liuing in tribulation, as appereth 
in his storye, who that lyste to rede therin. And saynte 
Austyne saythe : Qui terrenis inhiat, et aierna non cogitat, Augustine. 

20 vtrisque in futuro carebit : he that gathereth in worldly 
thynges, and thynketh not vppon euerlastynge thynges, 
shall wante bothe in tyme to come. For sayncte 
Ambrose saythe, Non sunt bona hominis, qua secum ferre Ambrose. 

24 non potest: They are not the goodes of man, the whiche 

he can-not beare with him. And saynte Bernarde saythe : Bernard. 
Si vestra sint, to/lite vobiscum : Yf they be yours, take them 
with you. Than it is to be vnderstande, what goodes a 

28 man shall take with hym. And these be the good dedes 
and warkes that thou doste here in this temporall lyfe, 
wherof speketh Crysostome : Fac bene, et operare iustiliam, Chrysostom. 
vt spem habeas apud deum, et non desperabis in terra : Doo [Foi. 71*.] 

32 well, and worke ryghtwysly, that thou mayste haue truste 
in god, and that thou be not in despayre in this worlde. 
Accordynge to that saythe the prophete Dauyd, Junior Ps. xxxvii. 
fui, etenim senui, et non vidi iustum dereiictum, nee semen (Ps- ravi. 

36 eius querens panem : I haue ben yonge, and I haue waxen 
olde, and I haue not seen a ryghtwyse man forsaken, nor 
his chyldren sekynge theyr breade. 


157. The property of a rich man. 


[Fol. 72.] 

Suppose I 
sell 1000 
sheep, 100 
to each of 
10 men. 

Those who 
do not pay 
I imprison 
for debt. 

These men 
buy their 
sheep dearer 
than the 


I 6 


So it is with 

men who 

buy heaven. 28 

3 2 

[Fol. 723.] 

157. % What is the propertie of a riche man. 
In myne opynyon the propertye of a ryche manne is, to 
be a purchaser ; and if he wyll purchase, I councell hym 
to purchase heuen. For sayncte Austyne saythe, Regnum 
ccelorum nulli claudiiur, nisi Mi, qui se excluserit : The 
kyngedome of heuen is to noo man closed, but to hym 
that wyll putte oute hym-selfe. Wherfore this texte 
maye gyue the a courage to prefixe thy mynde, to make 
there thy purchase. And Salomon saythe : Quod mali 
carius emunt infernum, quam boni cesium : 111 men bye 
hell derer, thanne the good men bie heuen. And that me 
semeth maye well be proued by a common ensample : As 
if I had a .M. shepe to sell, and dyuers men come to me, 
and bye euery manne a .C. of the shepe, all of one price, 
to paye me at dyuers dayes. I am agreed, and graunt 
them these dayes ; some of the menne be good, and kepe 
theyr promesse, and paye me at theyr dayes, and some of 
theym doo not paye me. Wherfore I sue theym at the 
lawe, and by course of the common lawe, I doo recouer 
my duetie of them, and haue theyr bodyes in prisone for 
execution, tylle they haue made me payment. Nowe these 
men, that haue broken me promesse, and payed not theyr 
dewetye, bye theyr shepe derer thanne the good menne 
bought theyrs. For they haue imprysonment of theyr 
bodyes, and yet must they pay theyr duetyes neuer the 
lesse, or elles lye and dye there in pryson : the whiche 
sheepe be derer to them, then to the good men that 
kepte theyr promes. Righte so euery man chepeth 
heuen, and god hath sette on it a pryce, and graunted 
it to euery man, and giuen to them dayes of payment : 
the pryce is all one, and that is to kepe his commaunde- 
mentes, duryng theyr lyues : the good men kepe his 
commaundementes, and fulfyll theyr promesse, and haue 
heuen at theyr decease. The yll men breake promesse, 
& kepe not his commaundementes, wherfore at theyr 

158. Wliatjoys are in Jieaven. 109 

decease they be put in pryson, that is to say in hell, 
36 there to abyde his ryghtuousenes. And soo the yll men 

bye hell derer, than the good menne bye heuen. And 111 sen buy 

3 ' ° J hell dearer 

therfore it is better, to forgoo a lyttel pleasure, or suffer J than good 

J men buy 

a lyttell payne in this worlde, than to suffer a moche heaven. 
40 greatter and a lenger payne in an other worlde. Nowe 
sythe helle is derer than heuen, I aduyse the specyally 
to bye heuen, wherin is euerlastynge ioye without ende. ^j^J.^ 

158. \ What ioyes or pleasures are in heuen. 
Saynt Austyn saythe, Ibi erunt qtuecunque ab hominibus Augustine. 
desiderantur, vita et salus, copia glorie, honor, pax, et 
omnia bona : That is to saye, There shall be euery thynge 
4 that any man desyreth, there is lyfe, helth, plenty of ioye, 
honour, peace, and all maner of goodnes. What wolde a 
man haue more ? And saynt Paule sayth, Occulus non vidit, 1 Co J\"- 9 - 
nee auris audiuil, nee in cor hominis ascendit, qua deus 
8 diligentibus se : That is to say, The eye hath not seen, nor 
the eares hath herde, nor the herte of a man hath thought 
of so goodly thynges, that god hath ordeyned for theym [Foi. 73-] 
that loue hym. O what a noble acte that were for an 
1 2 husbande or houswyfe, to purchase suche a royall place in 
heuen, to whiche is no comparyson. Than it is to 
be knowen, what thynge pleaseth god most, that we myght 
do it. 

159. % What thynges pleaseth god most. 
By the texte of sayncte Paule, before sayd, loue pleaseth 1 Cor. u. o. 
god aboue al thinge, and that maye be well proued by the 

sayinge of our lorde hym-selfe, where he saythe : Da mihi Prov. mm. 

4 cor tuum, et sufficit mini ; Gyue me thy harte, and that is 

sufficiente for me ; for he that hath a mannes harte, hath 

all his other goodes. What is this mans harte? it is 

nothyng elles, but very trewe loue. For there can be no 

1 Misprinted suker. 

no 160. What are God's commandments. 

8 true loue, but it commeth meryly and immediately from 

the harte : and if thou loue god entyerlye with thy harte, 

than wylte thou do his commaundementes. Than it wolde 

be vnderstande and knowen whiche be his commande- 

1 2 mentes, that a man may obserue and kepe them. 

160. % What be goddes commaundementes. 
[Foi. 73A.] There be in all .x. commaundementes, the which were 

to long to declare, but they be all concluded and compre- hended in two, that is to say : Diliges dominum deum tuum 

Lev. xix. 18. ' >T 

4 super omnia : Et proximum tuum sicut te ipsum : Loue thy 

lorde god aboue al thing, and thy neyghboure as thy-selfe. 

These be lyghte commaundementes, and nature byndeth 

a man to fulfyll, obserue, and kepe them, or els he is not 

8 a naturall man, remembryng what god hath doone for the. 

Fyrste he hath made the to the symylytude and lykenes 

of his owne ymage, and hathe gyuen to the in this worlde 

dyuerse possessions, but specyally he hath redemed thy 

12 soule vpon the crosse, and suffered great payne and 

passion and bodelye deathe for thy sake. What loue, 

what kyndenes was in hym, to doo this for the ? What 

couldest thou desyre hym to do more for the ? And he 

God asks 16 desyreth nothynsre of the agayne, but loue for loue. What 

love for love. ' ' ° u * 

can he desyre lesse ? 

161. f Howe a man shulde loue god and please hym. 

Surelye a man maye loue god and please hym very many 

wayes : but fyrste and principally, he that wyll loue god, 

[Foi. 74.] an d please hym, he muste doo as it is sayde in Symbalo 

Athanasian 4 Athanasii : Quicunqxxe vult saluus esse, ante omnia opus est 

vt ieneat caiholicam fidem, Who so euer wyll be saued, 

aboue all thynge he must nedes be stedfast in the faythe 

of holy churche. And accordynge to that, saythe sayncte 

Heb xi 6 8 Paule : Sine fide impossibile est placere deo ; Without faythe 

Seneca. ^ is impossible to please god. And Seneca sayth : Nichil 

162. Of love to ones neighbour. 1 1 1 

retinet, qui fidem perdidit : There abydeth no goodnes" in 
hym, that hath loste his faythe. And soo thou mayste 
1 2 well perceyue, that thou canst not loue nor please god, 
without perfyte fayth. And ferther-more thou mayste not 
presume to study, nor to argue thy faithe by reason. For 
saynte Gregory saythe : Fides non habet meritum, vbi humana Gregory ;xi. 

Homil. in 

io ratio prebet experimentum : Faythe hath no meryte, where Evan &- »• 

as mannes reasone proueth the same. This faythe is a 

pryncypall sygne, that thou loueste god. Also thy good 

dedes, and thy warkes, is a good sygne, that thou loueste 

20 god. For saynt Iherome saythe : Vnusquisque, cuius opera Jerome. 
facit, eius filius appellatur : whose warkes euery man dothe, 
his son or seruaunt he is called. And sayncte Bernarde Bernard, 
saythe, Efficatior est vox open's, quzm vox sermonis : The 

24 dedes and the warkes of a man is more euydent profe, [Foi. 74 *.] 
than his wordes. The fulfyllynge of the .vii. workes of Seven works 

1 ,1 , of mercy. 

mercye is an other specyall sygne, that thou louest god : 
and many mo there be, whiche were to longe to reherse 
28 them all. 

162. «[ Howe a man shulde loue his neyghbour. 

Thou must loue thy neyghboure as thy-selfe, wherin Love of our 
thou shalt please god specially : for if thou loue thy ne ' gh ° ur ' 
neyghbour as thy-selfe, it foloweth by reason, that 

4 thou shalte do nothyng to hym, but suche as thou 
woldest shulde be done to the. And that is to 
presume, that thou woldest not haue any hurte of thy 
body, nor of thy goodes, done vnto the, and lykewyse 

8 thou shuldest none do vnto hym. And also if thou 
woldest haue any goodnes done vnto the, eyther in thy 
bodye, or in thy mouable goodes, lykewyse shuldest thou 
do vnto thy neyghbour, if it lye in thye power, accordynge 
1 2 to the sayinge of saynte Gregorye, Nee deus sine proximo, Gregory. 
nee proximus vere diligitur sine deo : Thou canste not loue 
god, with-out thou loue thy neyghbour, nor thou canst not 

112 163. Prayer is pleasing to God. 

loue thy neighbour, without thou loue god. Wherfore 
[Foi. 75.] j6 thoumuste fyrste loue god pryncypallye, and thy neygh- 
bour secondaryly. 

163. f Of prayer that pleaseth god very moche. 

pleach Prayer is honour and laude to god, and a specyall 

God much. thynge that pleaseth hym moche, and is a greate sygne, 

that thou louest god, and that thou arte perfyte and 

4 stedfaste in the faythe of holy churche : and that it is so, 

it maye be well consydered by our forefathers, that haue 

for the loue and honour of god made churches. And a 

man muste dayly at some conuenyente tymes exercyse and 

8 vse prayer hym-selfe, as he oughte to doo. For saynt 

Ambrose. Ambrose sayth, Relicto hoc, ad quod ieneris, ingratum est 

spiritui sancto quicquid aliud operaris : If thou leaue that 

thynge vndone, that thou arte bounde to doo, it is not 

12 acceptable to god, what-so-euer thou dooste elles. Than 

it is necessarye, that thou do praye, and a poore manne 

doynge his labour trewely in the daye, and thinketh well, 

prayeth well : but on the holye daye, he is bounde to come 

1 6 to the church, and here his diuyne seruyce. 

[Foi. 75*0 164. f What thynge letteth prayer. 

There be two impedimentes, that lette and hynder 

prayer, that it maye not be herde. And of the fyrste im- 

isa. i. 15. pedimente speketh Ysaye the prophete : Quia manus vestrce 

4 plence sunt sanguine .i. peccato, ideo non exaudiet vos dominus : 

Bycause your handes be full of bloude, that is to saye, 

full of synne, therfore our lorde dothe not graciousely 

Prov.xv. 29. here you. And also prouerbiorum tertio, Longe est dominus 

8 ab impiis, et oraiiones iustorum exaudiet. Our lorde is ferre 

fro wycked men, and the prayers of ryghtewyse men he 

Bernard. gracyously hereth. And sayncte Bernarde saythe, Qui a 

165. How a man sJwtdd pray. 113 

praceptis dei auertitur, quod in oratione posiulat non merelu'r : 

12 He that dothe not goddes commaundementes, he 
deserueth not to haue his prayer harde. The seconde 
impediment, saythe Anastasius, is, Si non dimittis iniuriam, Anastasms. 
que tibi facta est, non orationem pro tefacis, sed malediciionem 

1 6 super te inducis : If thou forgyue not the wronge done 
vnto the, thou doste not praye for thy-selfe, but thou 
enducest goddes curse to fall vppon the. And Isodorus Isidore, 
saythe, Sicut nullum in vulnere proficit medicamenlum, si 

20 adhuc ferrum in eo sit : ita nihil proficiat oratio illius, cuius [Fol. 81 ; 
adhuc dolor in mente vel odium manet in pec tore. Lyke as 
the playster or medycyne can -not heale a wounde, if there 
be any yren styckinge in the same, ryghte soo the prayer 

24 of a man profyteth hym not, as longe as there is sorowe 
in his mynde, or hate abydynge in his breste. For 
sayncte Austyne saythe, Si desit charitas, frustra habentur Augustine. 
cetera. If charitie wante, all other thynges be voyde. 

28 Wherfore thou muste se that thou stande in the state of 
grace, and not infecte with deedly synne, and than praye 
if thou wylt be harde. 

165. \ Howe a man shulde praye. 

It is to be vnderstande that there be dyuers maner 
of prayinges, Quedam publico, et quedam priuata ; That Public 


is to saye, some openlye, and some priuately. Prayer 
4 openly muste nedes be done in the churche by the 
mynystratours of the same people. For it is done for 
all the comynaltye, and therfore the people in that oughte 
to conferme theym-selfe to the sayde mynystratours, and 
8 there to be presente to praye vnto god after a dewe 
maner. Oratio priuata. The prayer pryuately done, Private 

.... , prayer. 

oughte to be doone in secrete places, for two causes. [Fol. 81*.] 
For prayer eleuateth and lyfteth vp a mannes mynde 
12 to god. And the mynde of man is sooner and better 


165- How a man should pray. 

Matt. vi. s. 

lyfte vppe whan he is in a pryuye place, and separate 
frome multytude of people. An other cause is to auoyde 
vaynglory that myghte lyghtely ensue or ryse thervppon, 

1 6 whan it is doone openly ; and therof speketh our 
sauyour, where he sayth, Cum oralis, non eritis sicut 
hypocrites, qui amant in sinagogis et in angulis platearum 
stantes orare. That is to saye, whan ye praye, be not 

20 you as the hypocrytes, the whiche loue to stande in 
theyr synagoges and corners of hyghe-wayes to praye. 
Also some folkes pray with the lyppes or mouthe, and 
not with the herte, of whome spekethe our lorde by his 
isa.xxix. 13. 24. prophete, Hij labiis me honorant, cor autem eorum longe 
est a me ; They honour me with theyr mouthe, and 
theyr hertes be ferre from me. And sayncte Gregory 
saythe, Quid prodest strepitus labiorum vbi mutum est cor? 

28 What profyteth the labour of the mouthe, where the 
herte is dombe ? And Isodore saythe, Longe quippe a 
deo est animus, qui in oratione cogitationibus sceculi fueril 
occupatus. His soule is far from god, that in his prayer 

32 his mynde is occupied in warkes of the worlde. There 
be other that pray both with the mouth and hart, of 
whom speketh sayncte Iohan .x. Veri adoratores, adorabunf 
patrem in spiritu et veritate. The true prayers wylle 

36 worshyp the father of heauen in spirite and with trouthe. 
Isodorus saythe, Tunc veraciter oramus, quando aliunde 
non cogitamus. Than we praye truely, whan we thynke 
on nothynge elles. Richardus de Hampole. Ille deuote 

40 oral, qui non habet cor vacabundum in terrenis occupationibus, 
sed sublatum ad deum in ccelestibus. He prayeth deuoutly, 
that hath not his harte wauerynge in worldelye occupa- 
tions, but alwaye subleuate and lyfte vppe to god in 

44 heuen. There be other that praye with the harte. vnde 
Mat. vi. Tu autem cum oraueris, intra \in\ cubiculum tuum 
.i. in loco secreto, et clauso hostio, ora patrem tuum. Whan 
thou shalte praye, entre into thy chambre or oratory, 



[Fol. 82.] 
John iv. 24 


Richard of 

Matt. vi. 6. 

1S6. Remedy against idle thoughts. 115 

48 and steke the doore, and praye to the father of heuen. 

Isodorus, Ardens oratio est non labiorum sed cordium, potius Isidore. 

enim orandum est corde juam ore. The hoter prayer is 

with the harte than with the Iyppes, rather pray with 
52 thy herte than with thy mouth. Regum primo. Anna iSam. i. 13. 

loquebatur in corda. Anna spake with the harte. 

166. A meane to put away ydle thoughtes in prayinge. [Foi. 823.] 
And to auoyde wauerynge myndes, in worldlye occu- Against idle 


pations whanne thou shalte praye, I shall shewe vnto you 
the beste experience that euer I coulde fynde for the same, 
4 the whiche haue benne moche troubled therwith, and that 
is this. He that can rede and vnderstande latyne, let if you 

. understand 

hym take his booke in his hande, and looke stedfastely Latin, keep 

your eye on 

vppon the same thynge that he readeth and seeth, that the book, 


8 is no trouble to hym, and remembre the ensrlysshe of^ er ^ . 

' English of 

the same, wherin he shall fynde greatte swetenes, and shall *■ 
cause his mynde to folowe the same, and to leaue other 
worldly thoughtes. And he that canne-not reade nor 
1 2 vnderstande his pater noster, Aue, nor Crede, he must if not, think 

, , . of Christ's 

remembre the passyon of Chnste, what peyne he suffered passion, 
for hym, and all mankynde, for redemynge of theyr soules. 
And also the miracles and wonders that god hath doone, 
16 and fyrste what wonders were doone the nyghte of his 

natiuitie and byrthe. And howe he turned water in-to and of His 

j j 1 , , miracles; 

wyne, and made the blynde to se, the dombe to speake, 
the deafe to here, the lame to go, the sycke to be hole. 

20 And howe he fed fyue thousande with two fysshes, and t F °i- 83J 
fyue barley loues, wherof was lefte .xii. coffyns or skyppes 
of fragmentes. And howe he reised Lazare from deathe 
to lyfe, with manye moo myracles that be innumerable to 

24 be rehersed. And also to remembre the specyall poyntes 

of his passion, howe he was solde & betraved of Tudas, how He was 
and taken by the iewes, and broughte before Pylate, than 


167. How to avoid temptation. 


and cruci- 

went down 
to hell ; and 
rose again. 

[Fol. 8 3 3.] 

to kynge Herode, and to bysshope Cayphas, and than to 

28 Pylate agayne, that iudged hym to death, and howe he 
was bounde to a piller, and how they scurged, bobbed, 
mocked hym, spytte in his face, crowned hym with thornes, 
and caused hym to beare the crosse to the mounte of 

32 Caluary, whervppon he was nayled both handes and 
fete, and wounded to the harte with a sharpe spere, and 
soo suffered deathe. And howe he fette out the soules of 
our forefathers forthe of hell. Howe he rose frome deathe 

36 to lyfe, and howe ofte he appered to his discyples and 
other moo. And what myracles he wroughte afterwarde, 
and specyally what power he gaue to his dyscyples, that 
were noo clerkes, to teache and preche his faythe, and 

40 worke many myracles, and specyally whan they preached 
before menne of dyuers nations and languages, and euerye 
man vnderstode in theyr own language, the whiche is 
a sygne that god wolde haue euery manne saued, and 

44 to knowe his lawes, the whiche was a myracle able to 
conuerte all the infydeles, heretykes, and lollers in the 

The holier a 
man is, the 
more he is 



167. *[[ A meane to auoyde temptation. 

It is ofte-tymes seen, that the holyer that a man is, the 

more he is tempted, and he that soo is, maye thanke god 

therof. For god of his goodnes and grace hath not gyuen 

4 to the dyuell auctoritie nor power to attempte any man 

ferther and aboue that, that he that is so tempted, maye 

withstande. For sayncte Gregory sayth, Non est timendum 

(sic) hostis, qui non potest vincere nisi volentevsx. An enemye is 

8 not to be dradde, the whiche maye not ouercome, but if a 

manne be wyllynge. And it is to presume, that he that is 

soo tempted, standeth in the state of grace. For sayncte 

Ambrose saythe, Illos diabolus 1 vexare negligit, quos iure 

12 hcereditario se possidere sentit. The dyuell despyseth to 

1 Misprinted diabolis. 

167. How to avoid temptation. WJ 

vexe or trouble those, the whiche he felethe him-selfe to 
haue in possessyon by ryght inheritaunce. And if thou 
be so tempted, vexed, or troubled, I shall shewe vnto the 
1 6 two verses, that if thou do therafter, thou shalte be eased [Foi.84.] 
of thy temptacyon, and haue greatte thanke and laude of 
god and rewarde therfore ; these be the verses. 

Hosiis non /edit, nisi cum temp/a/us obedit. Two useful 


20 Est leo si sedit, si stat quasi musca recedit. 

% That is to say, The gostly enemy hurteth not, but whan 

he that is tempted obeyeth to his temptation. Than his The tempter 

is a lion, it 

ghostly enemy plaieth the lyon, if that he that is so we sit stil1 ; 
24 tempted syt styll and obey to hym. And if he that is 

tempted, stande styfly agaynste hym, the ghostlye ennemye but if we 

resist, he is 

flyeth awaye lyke a flye. This me semeth maye be wel°utafly. 
proued by a famylier ensaumple. As if a lorde had a 

28 castell, and deliuered it to a capitayne to kepe, if there a faint- 
come ennemies to the castell, and call to the capytayn, captain 
and byd hym delyuer them this castell. The capytayne castle, 
cometh and openeth them the gates, and delyuereth the 

32 keyes. Nowe is this castell soone wonne, and this 

capytayne is a false traytour to the lorde. But lette and is a 

, .. . ,/-,i, ■ traitor. But 

the capitaine arme hym-selfe, and steke the gates, and if he resist, 

j _ 11,1 ,1 ^ e enemy 

stande styfly vpon the walle, and commaunde them to will not 


36 auoyde at theyr peryll, and they wyll not tary to make 

anv assaut. Ryght so euery man is capitayne of his owne Everyman 

is captain of 

soule, and if thy gostely ennemy come and tempte the, his own soul, 
and thou, that art capytayne of thyne owne soule, wyll 

4.0 open the gates, and delyuer hym the keyes and let hym 
in, thy sowle is soone taken prysoner, and thou a false 
traytour to thy soule, and worthye to be punysshed in 
pryson for euer. And if thou arme thy-selfe and stande 

44 styfly agaynste hym, and wyll not consente to hym, he 
wyll auoyde and fle away, and thou shalt haue a greate 
reward for withstandynge of the sayde temptation. 


168. Alms deeds pleasing to God. 


God asketh. 


[Fol. 85.] 

Matt. xxv. 

He asks not 
ours, but bis. 

He asks 
only to 
borrow, and 
to repay a 


[Fol. 853.] 
Prov. xix. 7. 

168. \ Almes-dedes pleaseth god moche. 

Almes-dedes pleseth god very moche, and it is great 
sygne that thou loueste bothe god and thy neyghboure. 
And he of whome almes is asked, oughte to consyder 
4 thre thynges, that is to saye, who asketh almes, what he 
asketh, and wherevnto he asketh. Nowe to the fyrste, 
who asketh almes, Deus petit. God asketh. For saynte 
Jerome sayth, Quia deus adeo diligit pauperes, quod quicquid 
8 fit eis propter amorem suum, reputat sibi factum. That is 
to saye, bycause that god loueth poore men so moche, 
what-someuer thynge is gyuen vnto them for the loue of 
hym, he taketh it as it were done to hym-selfe ; as it is 

12 sayde in his gospell, Quod vni ex minimis meis fecistis, 
michi fecistis. That thynge that ye gyue or do to the 
least of those that be myne, ye do it to me. Thanne to 
the seconde, what asketh god ? Non nostrum, sed suum. He 

1 6 asketh not that thynge that is ours, but that thynge that is 
his owne. As saythe the prophete Dauid, Tua sunt domine 
omnia : Et qua de manu tua accepimus, tibi dedimus. Good 
lorde, all thynges be thyne, and those thynges that we 

20 haue taken of the, of those haue we gyuen the. Thanne 
to the thyrde, Where-vnto dothe god aske ? He asketh 
not to gyue hym, but all-onely to borowe, Non tamen ad 
triplas, s[c~]ilicet, immo ad centuplas. Not all-onely to haue 

24 thryse soo moche, but forsothe to haue an hundred tymes 
soo moche. As saynt Austyn saythe, Miser homo, quid 
veneraris homini ; venerare deo, et centuplum accipies, et vitam 
cBternam possidebis ? Thou wretched manne, why doste thou 

28 worshyp or dreade manne: worshyp thou god and dreade 
hym, and thou shalte receyue an hundred tymes so moche, 
and haue in possessyon euerlastynge lyfe, the whiche many- 
folde passeth all other rewardes ? Prouerbiorum xiiii. 

32 Veneratur domino, 1 qui miseretur pauperibus : He wor- 
shyppeth our lorde, that hath mercye and pytye on poore 
1 Printed dominus ; but the right reading is Focneratur domino. 

169. The first kind of alms. 119 

folkes. And the glose therof sayth, Centuplum accepturus. 

And thou shake receyue an .C. tymes so moche. And it 
36 is to be vnderstande, that there be thre maner of almes- ^^ s ^ nds 

dedes, that is to saye : Egenti largire quicquid poteris : deeds - 

dimittere eis a quibus lesus fueris : Errantem corrigere, et in 

viam veritatis reducere. That is to saye, to gyue to the 
40 nedy what thou well mayste, to forgyue theym that haue 

trespaced to the, and to correcte them that do amysse, 

and to brynge them into the way of ryghte. 

169. \ The fyrste maner of almes. 

Egenti largire quicquid poteris. Gyue to the nedye what 
thou well maye. For our lorde saythe in his gospell : Date Luke xi. 41 

▼i. 38, 

elemosinam, et omnia munda sunt vobis. Et alibi. Date, et 
4 dabitur vobis : Gyue almes, and all worldly rychesse is 
yours ; gyue, and it shall be gyuen to you. Almes-dede 
is a holy thynge, it encreaseth a mans welthe, it maketh 
lesse a mannes synnes, it lengtheth a mans lyfe, it maketh 
8 a man of good mynde, it delayeth yll tymes, and closeth [Foi. 86.] 
all thynges, hit delyuereth a manne from deathe, it ioyneth 
a manne with aungelles, and seuereth hym from the dyuell, 
and is lyke a wall vnable to be foughten agaynst. And 

1 2 saynt James saythe : Sicut aqua extinguit ignem, ita elemo- 
sina peccatum. As water slecketh fyer, soo dothe almes- 
dede slake synne. Salomon saythe, Qui dat pauperis non Prov. xxviii. 
indigebit. He that giueth vnto a poore man, shal neuer 

1 6 haue nede. And also he sayth, Qui obturat aurem suam Prov.xxi. 13. 
ad clamorem pauperis, et ipse clamabit, et non exaudieiur. 
He that stoppeth his eare at the clamoure or crie of a 
pore man, he shall crye, and he shall not be gracyousely 

20 herde. There maye no manne excuse hym from gyuynge 
of almes, thoughe he be poore. And let hym doo as 
the poore wydowe dyd, that offered a farthynge, wherfore Mark, xii. 
she hadde more thanke and rewarde of god, thanne the Luke, xxi. 2. 

24 ryche men that offered golde. And if thou mayste not 


170. TJie second kind of alms. 

2 Cor. ix. 7. 
[Fol. 863.] 


xxxiv. 24. 

gyue a farthynge, gyue lesse, or gyue fayre wordes, or 
good information, ensaumple, and token : and god shall 
rewarde the bothe for thy dede and for thy good wyll. And 

28 that thou dooste, do it with a good wyll. For saynte 
Paule saythe, Hilarem datorem diligit deus. God loueth 
a glad gyuer, and that if it be of true begotten goodes. 
For Salomon saythe, De tuis iustis laboribus ministra 

32 pauperibus. Of thy trewe labours mynystre and gyue to 
the poore folkes. For Isodorus saythe, Qui iniuste tollit, 
iuste nunquam tribuit. He that taketh wrongfully, can- 
not gyue trewelye. For it is wrytten Ecclesiastici xxxv. 

36 Qui de rapinis, aut vsuris,a ut de furto immolat : e[s~\t quasi 
qui coram patre victimat filium. He that offereth of the 
goodes, that he getteth by extortyon, vsurye, or thefte, 
he is lyke as a man slewe the sonne in the presence of 

40 the father. Thou mayste ryghte well knowe, the father 
wolde not be well contente. Noo more wolde god be 
pleased with the gyfte of suche begotten goodes. 

170. \ The seconde maner of almes. 

Dimittere eis, a quibus lesus fueris. To forgyue theym 

that haue trespaced to the, wherin thou shalte please 

god moche. For it is in the gospell of sayncte Marke 

Mark, xi. 6. 4 .xii. Si non dimiseritis aliis, nee pater vester celestis dimittet 

vobis peccata vestra. If you forgyue not, your father of 

[Fol. 87.] heuen wyll not forgyue you your synnes. Also if thou 

doo not forgyue other, thou shalte be founde a Iyer, as 

8 ofte as thou sayeste thy Pater noster, where thou sayste : 

Matt. vi. 12. fit dirnitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitori- 

bus nostris. And forgyue to vs our dettes, as we forgyue 

to our detters. By these dettes maye be vnderstande the 

12 thynges that we oughte to do to god, and doo not them. 

And also the trespaces and the synne that we haue 

offended to god, in that we aske mercye of. And if 

171. The third kind of alms. 121 

thou wylte not forgyue, thou mayst not aske mercy of 

1 6 ryght. Eadem mensura, qua mensi fueritis, remetietur vobis. Matt. vii. 2. 
The same measure that ye meate other men by, shall be 
moten vnto you. Dimiltere aulem rancorem et maiiciam 
omnino necessitatis est, dimittere vero actionem et emendam 

20 opus est consilii. To forgyue all rancour and malyce, that 
a manne oweth to the in his harte, thou arte bounden 
of necessitie to forgyue all the hole trespace, or to leaue 
thyne actyon, or a reasonable mendes. Therfore it is 

24 but a dede of mercye if thou so do, and no synne though 
thou sue the lawe with charytie. But and a manne haue 
done to the a trespace, and that thou arte gladde that 
he hathe soo done, that thou mayste haue a quarell, or [Foi. 87a.] 

28 a matter, or an accyon agaynste hym, and nowe of malyce 
or yll wyll thou wylte sue hym, rather than for the 
trespace ; nowe thou synnest dedely, bycause thou doest 
rather of malyce than for the trespace, and than haste 

32 thou loste thy charitie, Prouerbiorum .xxxii. Qui pronus Prov. xxii. 9. 
est ad misericordiam, benedicetur. He that is redy to for- 
giue, shall be blessed. 

171. ^f The thyrde maner of almes. 
Errantem corrigere, et in viam verilatis reducere. To T 1 "^ wa y s 

of correc- 

correcke a misdoer, and to brynge hym into the waye of tion - 
ryghte. It is to be vnderstand, that there be thre maner 
4 of corrections. 

*[ The fyrste correction is of an ennemye, the seconde First, as an 
is of a frynde, and the thyrde correction is of a Iustyce. enemy ' 
The fyrste sa)*the Chrisostome, Corripe non vt hostis chrysostom. 
8 expetens vindictam, sed vt medicus instituens medicinam. 
Correcke not as an enemye doinge vengeaunce, but as 
a phisicyon or surgyon, mynistringe or gyuynge a medi- Secondly, as 
cyne. To the seconde saythe Salomon. Plus proficit 
12 arnica correctio, quam correctio turbulenta. A frendelye 



172. What is maris greatest offence. 

[Fol. 88.] 



Thirdly, as 
a judge. 

Matt, xvi.27. 



[Fol. 88*.] 

correction profyteth more than a troublous correction. 
For yf thou speke courteysly to a man that hath offended, 
and with sweete wordes of compassion, he shall rather 

16 be conuerted by theym, than with hye wordes of great 
punysshement. And Isodorus saythe, Qui per verba blanda 
castigatus non corrigetur, acrius necesse est, vt arguatur. 
He that wylle not be chastysed by fayre wordes, it is 

20 necessary that he be more hardlyer and straytlyer reproued 
or punysshed. To the thyrde saythe sayncte Ierome, 
Equum iudicium est, vbi non persona sed opera considerantur. 
There is an euen Iugemente, where the personne is not 

24 regarded, but the warkes are consydered. And alsoo hit 
is wrytten. Reddet vnicuique iuxta opera sua. He shall 
yelde vnto euery manne after his workes. And sayncte 
Augustyne saythe, Sicut meliores sunt, quos corrigit amor, 

28 ita plures sunt quos corrigit timor. As those be better, 
that be chastysed by loue, soo there be many moo that 
be chastysed by feare. For and they feared not the 
punyshement of the lawe, there wolde be but a fewe 

32 chastysed by loue. And saynte Gregory sayth, Facientis 
procul dubio culpam habet, qui quod potest corrigere negligit 
emendare, et illicita non prohibere consensus erroris est. He 
that maye correcke, and dothe not, he taketh the offence 

36 to hym-selfe of the dede ; and he that dothe not forbede 
vnlawefull thynges, consenteth to the same, &c. 

172. ■fl What is the greattest offence that a manne may doo 
and offende god in. 

In myne opynyon, it is to be in despayre of the mercye 
of god. And therefore what soo euer thou haue doone 
or offended god, in worde, warke, thought, or dede, be 
Isidore. 4 neuer in despayre for it ; for Isodorus saythe, Qui veniam 

de peccato desperat, plus de desperatione peccat quam de culpa 
cadit. He that despayreth to haue forgyuenes of his 
synnes, he synneth more in despayrynge than he dyd in 

172. WJiat is man's greatest offence. 123 

8 the synne doynge. For saynte Iherome sayth, Magis Jerome. 
offendebat Iudas deum in hoc quod suspendebat, quam in 
hoc, quod eum tradidit : Judas offended god more in 
that that he hanged hym-selfe, than he dydde whanne he 

12 betrayed god. For god sayth in his gospell, Nolo mortem Ezek.xxtiii. 
peccatoris, sed magis vt conuertatur et viuat. I wyll not the 
deathe of a synner, but rather that he maye be conuerted [Foi. 89.] 
and lyue. And also he saythe, Non veni vocare iustos, Luke v . 32 . 

16 sed peccatores ad penitentiam. I am not comen to call 
ryghtwyse men, but to call synners to do penaunce. 
For thou canste not so soone crye god mercy with thy 
harte, but he is as redye to chaunge his sentence, and to 

20 graunte the mercy and forgyuenes of all thy synnes. For 

saynte Austyne saythe, Sicut scintilia [sic] ignis in medio Augustine. 
maris, sic omnis impie/as viri ad misericordiam dei. As a 
sparke of fyer is in comparison able to drye vppe all the 

24 water in the se, noo more is all the wyckednes of man 
vnto the me[r]cyfulnes of god. And therfore it is conueny- 
ent that a manne shulde be penytent, contryte, and aske 
god mercye and forgyuenesse of his synnes and offences, 

28 that he hath done; wherof speketh Chrysost[o]me, Nemo chrysostom. 
ad deum aliquando flens accessit quod non postulauerit accepit. 
No man hath gone any tyme wepynge to god, but he 
hath taken or had that thynge that he hath asked. And 

32 sayncte Bernard e saythe, Plus cruciant lacrime peccatoris Bernard. 
diabolum quam omne genus tormentorum. The teares of a 
synner tourmenteth the deuyll more, than all other kyndes 
of turmentes. And sayncte Austyne saythe, Acriores Augustine. 

36 dolores demonibus non inferrimus, quam. cum peccata nostra rpoi. 89^.] 
penitendo et confitendo plangimus. We canne not doo more 
sharper sorowes to the dyuell, than whan we wayle or 
wepe in confessyon, and doynge of penaunce. And 

40 that maye be well proued by Mary Magdaleyn, Mary 


whanne she kneled downe and cryed god mercye, and 
kyste his fete, and wasshed theym with the teares of 

124 172. Fitzherberts protestation. 

her eyen, and wyped them with the heare of her 

44 heed, to whom onr lorde sayde, as in his gospell, 

Luke vii. 4 8. Dimittuntur tibi peccata tua. Thy synnes are forgyuen 

Luke vii. 50. t th e ; and also he sayde to her : Fides te saluam fecit, 

vade in pace. Thy faythe hath saued the, goo thou in 

48 peace. To the whiche mercy and peace I besech 

almyghty Iesu brynge all chrysten soules. Amen. 

The author's 

BE it knowen to all men bothe spirytuall and tem- 
porall, that I make protestacion before god and man, 
52 that I entende not to wryte any-thynge that is or 
maye be contrary to the faythe of Chryste and al holy 
churche. But I am redye to reuoke my sayenge, if 
any-thynge have passed my mouthe for wante of lernynge, 
56 and to submytte my-selfe to correction, and my boke 
to reformatyon. And as touchynge the poyntes of 
[Foi. 90.] husbandry, and of other artycles conteyned in this 

present boke, I wyll not saye that it is the beste waye 
60 and wyll serue beste in all places, but I saye it is the 
best way that euer I coude proue by experyence, the 
The author's whiche haue ben an householder this .xl. yeres and 

experience ■' 

"L^s'asa more. And haue assaied many and dyuers wayes, and 

householder, g^ done my dyligence to proue by experyence which shuld 
be the beste waye. 

% The Auctonr. 

The author's % Go, lyttell quere, and recommende me 

his book. To all that this treatyse shall se, here, or rede ; 

Prayenge them therwith content to be 
4 And to amende it in places, where as is nede : 

Of eloquence, they may perceyue I want the sede, 
And rethoryke, in me doth not abounde, 
Wherfore I have sowe«, such sedes as I fouwd. 


Co lop /ion. 125 

% Thus endeth this ryghte profytable boke [FoL ^^ 

of husbandry, compyled sometyme by may- This book 

ster Fitz-herbarde, of charytie and good zele £ted by"* 

that he bare to the weale of this mooste fiferiEtat 

noble realme, whiche he dydde not 
in his youthe, but after he had 
exercysed husbandry, with 
greate experyence, 
xl. yeres. 

f Imprynted at London in fletestrete, 

in the house of Thomas Ber- 

-thelet, nere to the condite 

at the sygne of Lu- 

-crece. Cum pri- 



These Notes are principally concerned with the numerous variations exhibited 
in the edition printed by I. R. in 1598. See the Preface. 
The references are to the Sections and lines, as numbered. 

Prologue ; lines 2, 6. See Job, v. 7 ; 2 Thess. iii. 10. 

15. The allusion is to Caxton's Book of the Chess ; see the description of it 
in Ames' Typographical Antiquities, ed. Dibdin, L 36, where woodcuts will be 
found representing the several pieces. 

20. iudges. Caxton calls them rooks, as at present, but he describes them as 
being vicars and legates of the king, i.e. as occupying the position of judges. 

yomenne, pawns. In Caxton, we find the division of pawns into eight classes 
(answering to the eight pawns on each side), in which the king's rook's pawn 
represents the husbandman. The next in order, the king's knight's pawn, is the 
smith ; after which, in due order, we find the notary, merchant, physician, taverner, 
guard (or watchman), and the ribald or dice-player, whose character is not well 
spoken of. This eight-fold division seems to me to have suggested the well- 
known formula which divides men into the eight classes of ' soldier, sailor, tinker, 
tailor, gentleman, apothecary, ploughboy, thief;' which is sometimes otherwise 
varied. The German formula is. 'Edelmann, Bettelman, Amtmann, Pastor, 
Kaufmann, Laufmann, Maler, Major ; ' also, be it observed, eight-fold. Our 
soldier, tinker, tailor, apothecary, ploughboy, and thief, may be imagined to 
correspond, with sufficient exactitude, to Caxton's guard, smith, merchant, 
physician, husbandman, and ribald. 

27. Remytte, leave. A word is evidently omitted ; we must supply to after as, 
or else substitute to for as. In the Book of Surveying, ch. ix, we find, " I remytte 
that to menne of Iawe;" and again, in ch. xii, "I remytte all those poyntes to 
menne of lawe." See also sect. 7, 1. 14. 

1. 1. For the manner in which I. R. rewrites this section, see the Preface. . 

2. 5. Chylturnc. As to the sense, we find, in the Book of Surveying, c. 37, 
the following. " Chylturne grounde and flyntye grounde be light groundes and 
drye, and full of small stones, and chalke grounde is moche of the same nature, 
and they wyll weare and washe awaye with water." 

6. Meane erthe, earth of ordinary character. Mean is moderate, ordinary. 
I. R. alters it to ' maine earth,' which was probably not intended. After marie, 
he inserts — " some neither Sand nor Clay, but like a mixture of both, yet neither, 
which is called a Hassell ground." 

9. I. R. has — "In Sommerset-shiere, Dawset-shiere, and Gloster-shiere."' 

128 Notes (2. 1 6— 3. i). 

Zelcester. The old character }, which had the force of y at the beginning of a 
word, ' was often printed as Z, by confusion. Bishop Percy used to print such 
ludicrous forms as zow, zour, instead of yow, your. I conclude that Zelcester = 
Yelcester, i.e. Ilchester. The form occurs again in sect. 27, 1. 17. 

16. many other places. J. R. says — "in some parte of Hartford-shiere, Sussex, 
and Cornwall." 

24. aslope'] I. R. has a flote. gyue out, i.e. spread out, are too obtuse. 

26. I. R. says — "In Cambridge-shiere, Huntington-shiere, Bedford-shiere, 
and for the most part of Northamton-shiere, theyr Ploughes haue but one hale. 
In Leister-shiere, Lankishiere, Yorkshiere, Lincolnshiere, and Notingham-shiere, 
they haue two ; for all other Countries [counties'] vnnamed, there is none of them 
but plow with some of these Ploughes before-mentioned." 

3. 1. The parts of a plough are enumerated in Gervase Markham's Complete 
Husbandman (1614), which is quoted at length in Rogers's Hist, of Agriculture 
and Prices, vol. i. p. 534. It is probable that the plough, as described by 
Fitzherbert, did not materially differ from that in use in 1614. 

The principal parts, according to Markham, are as follows. 

( 1 ). ' The ploughbeam, a large and long piece of timber, which forms an arch 
for the other parts of the plough.' It is, says Fitzherbert, the long beam above, 
which is slightly bent. The plough-sheath, the coulter, and the plough-foot, are 
all mortised into it, pointing downwards. 

(2). ' The sitati (i.e. sheath), a piece of wood two and a half feet long, eight 
inches broad, and two inches thick, which is mortised into the beam, and sloping 
forwards below it.' Fitzherbert says it is a thin piece of dry oak, fixed both in 
the plough-beam and the share-beam, and is the chief 'band,' i.e. strengthening 
piece or support, of the whole plough. By 'thin,' he must mean that it is thin 
(2 inches) in proportion to its breadth (8 inches) ; it is necessary that it should 
be very strong, as it holds the implement together. 

(3). 'The plough's principal hale on the left hand, a long bent piece of wood, 
somewhat strong in the midst, and so slender at the upper end that a man may 
easily gripe it.' This is Fitzherbert's plough-tail (1. 16), which he says is mortised 
into the sharebeam behind, and pinned to the ploughbeam behind also. The 
ploughman holds it in his left hand. It is also called the ploughstart ; where start 
means tail, as in red-start. 

(4). l The plough-head, which is fixed with the skeath and the hale, all at one 
instant, into two several mortise-holes ; a flat piece of timber, about three feet in 
length, seven inches in breadth, and two and a half in thickness, and having two 
nicks towards the head of the plough.' This is the same as what Fitzherbert calls 
the sharebeam ; see the explanation in sect. 2, 1. 10. 

(5). 'The plough-spindles, two round pieces of wood which couple the hales 
[handles] together.' These are what Fitzherbert calls the rough staves ; see 1. 35. 

(6). 'The right-hand hale, through which the other end of the spindles run, 
much more slender than the left-hand hale, because no force is put on it.' This 
is Fitzherbert's plough-stilt ; see 1. 21. 

(7). The plough-rest, a small piece of wood, fixed at one end in the further nick 

1 Such is the general rule ; but in Lowland Scotch, we have Dalziel, Menzies, pronounced 
as Dalyell, Menyies, i.e. with z for y in the middle of a word, where it usually has the force 
of gh. 

Notes (3. i). 129 

of the plough-head, and on the other end to the right-hand hale. ' ' In the Middle 
Ages,' says Prof. Rogers, * it appears that this part was made of iron', and that it 
was occasionally double.' We must remember that plough-head means the share- 

(8). ' The skelboard [Le. shield-board], a board of more than an inch thick, 
covering the right side of the plough, and fastened with two strong wooden pins 
to the skeath and right-hand hale.' 

(9). 'The coulter, a long piece of iron made sharp at one end, passing on one 
side by a mortise-hole through the beam, and held in place by an iron ring which 
winds round the beam and strengthens it.' Fitzherbert's description is slightly 
different ; see 1. 48. The use of the coulter is to make the first incision into the 
earth ; it precedes the share, which follows it and completes its work. 

(10). 'The share. If this be needed for a mixed earth, it is made without a 
wing, or with a small one only : if, however, it be needed for a deep or stiff 
clay, it should be made with a large wing or an outer point.' 

(11). ' The plough-foot. This is an iron implement, passed through a mortise- 
hole, and fastened at the farther end of the beam by a wedge or two, so that the 
husbandman may at his discretion set it higher or lower ; the use being to give 
the plough earth or to put it from the earth, for the more it is driven downward 
the more it raises the beam from the ground and makes the irons forsake the earth, 
and the more it is driven upward, the more it lets down the beam and makes the 
irons bite the ground.' Fitzherbert well describes it as ' a stay to order of what 
deepness the plough shall go.' The word ploughfote occurs in Piers Plowman, 
B. vi. 105 ; see my notes to that poem, vol. iv. p. 161. This part of the plough 
was also called a plough-shoe (in Latin, ferripedalis) ; see Rogers (as above), 
p. 538. In a modern plough, the plough-foot is generally replaced by small 
wheels. I may remark that it was placed in front, before the coulter. 

If we compare the preceding account with that given by Fitzherbert, we shall 
see that the two nearly agree. Fitzherbert's plough-beam, plough-sheath, and 
plough-tail are Nos. 1, 2, and 3 above ; his stilt, rest, and shieldboard are Nos. 
6. 7, and 8 ; his rough slaves, plough-foot, share, and coulter, are Nos. 5, 11, 10, 
and 9. But he has three additional terms, viz. the sharebeam, which is the 
wooden frame for the share, and is called by Markham the plough-head (So. 4). 
Secondly, the fen-board, Le. mud-board, covering the left side of the plough, and 
fastened to the left of the sheath and the left hale, much as the shield-board is 
fastened to the right of the sheath and the right hale. Lastly, the plough-ear, 
defined as ' three pieces of iron, nailed fast to the right side of the plough- 
beam,' for which poor men substituted ' a crooked piece of wood pinned fast 
to the plough-beam.' What was the use of this appendage we are not expressly 
told ; but it seems to have been used for fastening the trace to, for draught ; 
see 4. 34. 

Fitzherbert also notices the plough-mal, i.e. plough-mall or plough -mallet 
0- 55)» which seems to have consisted of a head of hard wood and a 'pynne,' or 
handle, and to have been loosely stuck into the plough-beam by passing the 
handle through 'an augurs bore,' i.e. through a hole bored in the beam by an 
augur for this especial purpose. This was no real part of the plough, but only 
a tool conveniently kept at hand. He does not, however, mention the plough- 
staff (or akerstaff), which was 'a pole shod with a flat iron, the purpose of which 

130 Notes (3. 10— 4. 58). 

was to clear the mould-board from any stiff earth which might cling to it while 
the plough was at work ' ; Rogers, as above, p. 539. This was originally held 
in the right hand (see my notes to P. Plowman) ; but I think it likely that, 
when a second handle, or stilt, came into use, the plough-staff was given up. 
Wright's Prov. Glossary gives " mell,mellel, a square piece of wood fitted with 
a handle, a mallet." 

10. I. R. says of the sharbeame, that "in some Countries it is called the 
plough-head." Fitzherbert has already said this, see 2. 10. 

12. Oke] Oake or Ashe ; I.R. 

15. I. R. says of the plough-tayle, that " in many Countries [it is] called the 
Plough-hale, of which they haue two, but the other is fastened to the rough 
staues and the shelboard." The other hale is the plough-stilt. 

25. sheldbrede] Shelboard ; I. R. 

27. fenbrede] Senbred ; I. R. This is wrong. 

32. to come past] compasse ; I. R. 

34. roughe] long ; I. R. 

49. bende, i.e. bent] broad; I. R. This is inappropriate, for it is somewhat 
narrow, viz. of the breadth of three inches ; see line 52. 

55. ploitgh-mal] Plough Maule ; I. R. As to the parts of a plough, cf. Tusser's 
Husbandry, 17. 10, 11 ; and see above, note to 3. 1. 

4. 14. slot-wedges] flote wedges ; I. R. I. R. does not seem to have under- 
stood it, as he alters slote toflalte in the two lines following. 

19. After erthe, I. R. has — "so that it may, as the best experienced Plow-men 
say, kill a worme, or els it goeth not truly." Worme is clearly right. He 
further inserts — " The poynt of your Culture, and the poynt of your Share, must 
runne both in one leuell, so that they may cutte both in one instant, chiefely if the 
ground be stiffe and tough ; but if it be in a light land, then if the point of your 
Culture be a little longer it shall be so much the better, and in such light groundes, 
let your Culture be somwhat sickell-wise bowed, for the finer cutting, but in 
tough Clay ground it ought to be as straight as may be." 

26. payreth] hurteth ; I. R. This is a gloss. 
29. praclyue] practise; I. R. 1 

33. bende] band. But bende probably means 'bent piece.' 

35. he] you (throughout). This shews that this idiomatic use of he was obso- 
lescent in 1598. 

46. coke] Cocke. 

58. I. R. adds — "In diuers Countries, as namely in Cambridgshiere, Hunting- 
ton, Hartford, Bedford, and Northamton, the share is alwayes nayled with certaine 
nayles vnto the shelboard, to which I am not so well affected, because by that 
meanes the shelboard can neuer be turnd, or after he is once worne be [sic] for 
other purpose, whereas in the Northerne partes of this Land, the share being only 
fastned in his socket to the Plough-head, which may at ease be done with a 
crooked home of a Ramme, which being put ouer the poynt of the share, may be 
knocked fast at ones pleasure, the shelboard being worne at the one end may be 
taken off, and the other end set forward, which will as sufficiently serue as euer it 
did before, yeelding to the Plough-man a double profit." 

1 I shall in future drop the initials " I. R." in these collations. It will be understood that 
these various readings are all from the same source. 

Notes (5. i—8. i). 13 x 

5. I. But or he] Before we. 

2. teare] implements. A genteel improvement ! So again in L 45. 
4. stylkynges, wrethyng-lemes] stilking wrethen teames. 

6. sleues] cleuisse. pykforke] Pitchforke. 

9. fellyes] follies (!). 10. fettred] fettered or tyed. 

17. soule] sole. 

19. lyn-pinnes] limpins. 

23. pikstaues] pickstaues, all which are best of Ashe. 

24. hombers] humbers. holmes whyted, tresses] holmes, withed traces. 

29. or kyddes, or suche other] faggots, or Kids. 

6. 5. I. R. adds — " yet in all Virgils writing the Oxe-plough is most preferred." 
There are other unimportant variations here. 

17. teddered] teathered. 

iS. hades] hadds. 

24. gere that they shaf] hames and tyer they. 

27. hey] hay mingled, which Plough-men call bendfoder. 

28. and they haue, arc] and for shooes for the most part that cost in them is 
saued, except it be for some long iourney, or in stony wayes for feare of surbayting. 

30. lyttdl worthe] worth nothing, except for a kennell of noyse-begetting Hounds. 
32. ii. s.] tenne shillings. 

7. I . R. omits this section altogether. 

8. I. R. greatly expands this section, after the following manner. 

Chapter 8. r How a man should plough all maimer of Lands all times of the 

Now that I haue prescribed the manner to make and temper the most or all the 
sorts of Ploughs, it shall next seeme expedient for me to show the manner and 
time of the yeare in which a man ought to Plough, and for the better vnderstand- 
ing of the ignorant, I will begin at the beginning of the yeare, and so succeede 
downe-ward : After the feast of Epiphanie it is time for a Husbandman to 
goe to Plough, to wit, if your ground be a stiffe and a tough clay, then shall you 
begin and Plough your Pease-earth, which is, where you had your Wheate, Rye, 
and Barley, the yeere before : this ground being ploughed, you shall let it so lye, 
which is called bayting some fiue or sixe dayes, that it may receaue a frost or two, 
which frost will so lighten and deuide the earth, that when you shall come to 
harrow it, it will runne to a very good mold, that otherwise it would neuer doe. 
If your ground be naturally light and sandy, then may you imraediatly vpon your 
ploughing sowe without giuing your ground any bayte at all. When your Pease 
earth is sowne, and the Spring is creeping on : then if you will follow Virgils 
famous principles, begin to fallow your ground which must rest that yeare. In 
the beginning of Lent sow your Barley upon clay grounds, but in hote sandy 
grounds, if you stay a moneth or more longer it will be much the better. At 
mid-sommer stirre vp a-new, that is, Plow againe your fallow ground : & before 
the rising of the North-starre, which is eleuen dayes before the Equinoctial 
Autumnal, or the thirteenth of September, then sow your Wheate and Rye, and 
these be the seasons and the graynes to sow, except Oates, which is alwayes to be 
vsed in like manner as Barley is. If you haue any ley ground to fallow or breake 
vp for to sowe Oates vpon, then let that be the first thing you take in hand, that 

132 Notes (9. i— 11. n). 

the grasse and the mosse may be rot in it, and let your Plough runne a deepe 
square furrow, and in all manner of ploughing, see that your eye, your hand, and 
your foote agree, and be alwaies ready one to serue another, and to turne vp so 
much mold and to lay it flatte that it reare not an edge : for if it stand vp vpon 
an edge, the grasse and mosse can neuer kindly rotte, which being vsed as it 
should, is an excellent manuring. 

If you sowe Winter-corne, as eyther Wheate or Rye vpon swarth ground, looke 
how much Corne toucheth the mosse, so much will be drowned and cannot spring, 
the mosse in his owne nature dooth keepe so much wette in it selfe. In some 
Countries, if a man plow deepe, hee shal plough past the good ground, and so haue 
little Corne, but that Country in my iudgement is not fitte for tyllage, but rather 
thereto to reare and breede Cattell, as Oxen, Kine, or Sheepe, or els they must 
goe beate their lands with Mattocks, as they doo in many places of Cornwall, and 
in some places of Deuonshiere. The manner of plowing land is in three formes : 
eyther they be great Lands, as with high ridges and deepe furrowes, as in all the 
North parts of this Land, and in some sotherne parts also, or els flatte and plaine, 
without ridge or furrow, as in most parts of Cambridge-shiere : or els in little 
Lands, no Land containing aboue two or three furrowes, as in Midlesex, Essex, 
and Hartfordshiere. 

For the first, it is needfull, where the grounde is stife, tough, and binding, 
beeing alwaies capable of much wette, that if the Lands did not lie hie, not onely 
would the fatnesse choake the Corne ere it could come foorth, but also the colde 
soaking wette, would confound the vigor and strengthe of the seede. For the 
second, that is good where the ground is somewhat light, and giuen to barrennesse : 
so that what forest [read forct] vertue soeuer you thrust into the ground, either by 
manure or otherwise, the Land lying flatte and plaine, shall still retaine it, not 
suffering it as els it would to wash away with euery shower. For the last, that 
is, where the grounde is both barren, cold, and stiffe : if there you plough in 
large Lands, the wether and season will so binde it together, that the seede shall 
burst, but not finde any passage to sproute. Againe, such ground is subiect to 
much weede, besides, if your lands should be any greater, you should neuer 
possibly come to weede them, eyther as they would or they should be done. 

9. I. R. alters this section, noting — " Neuer sowe Pease or Beanes on a light, 
hote sand ground, for that will neuer beare them, but for the Beane, the ex- 
treamest and the stiffest ground is the best. If it bee lesse stiffe, then the mingled 
ware ' is best, as Pease and Beanes well sorted. If it bee neither stiffe nor light, 
then cleane Pease is the best, for they wil prosper most kindliest." 

13. I. R. adds — "Pease are an excellent seede, and inrich ground as much as 
the light manuring : which is the reason, that in many places of Lincoln -shiere, 
and els where, sowing their inam Wheate where theyr Pease grew, they haue the 
finest Corne." 

10. 1—9. Varied by I. R. 

13. kedlokes] Kellocks {but elseivhere Kedlocks). 

41. I. R. adds — "because the freshnes of the molde is to the seede very 

11. 11. wonders] wonderous (which is the later form). The whole of this 

1 Cf. the name pod-ware, as applied to beans and peas. See Halliwell. 

Notes (12. 8—17. 29). 133 

section is re-written, merely to alter the language. Fitzherbert speaks again of 
' the seed of discretion ' in the Book of Surveying, c. 39. 

12. 8. strykes in other places] two Northerne strikes. And as the measure 
Northward is greater, so are their Akers larger. 

13. quarter] quarter, or halfe a seame. 

31. Christmasse] Christmas, as for the most part Northward, or generally vpon 
fat clay grounds. 

13. 7. landes] land and the balke. 

18. sprot-barleye] sport-Barley. So also in 1. 19. 
28. lyke pecke-whele] like to an eare of Wheate. 

40. I. R. adds — " but how so euer the season of the yeare is, that Barley 
naturally of it selfe is a withered, deepe, yellow Corne, that yeldeth much bran, 
& but litle flower. Barley for the most part chiefly in clay grounds would be 
sown vnder furrow, that is, a cast or two about the Land, then ploughed, then 
sowne agayne, and so harrowed." ' 

14. 15. I. R. adds — '* These are for the most barranest Heath or forrest ground 
that may be, as in Darbishiere, where they call them Skeyggs, and not Oates." 

*#* After section 14, I. R. introduces section 34, to bring all the kinds of 
sowing together. 

15. This is section 17 in the edition of 1598. 

7. moche] bigge (which is a gloss). So also in 1. 24. 

8. shotes] flores. But this can hardly be right. See below. 

11. slote] slope. But this can hardly be right It is clear that the right word is 
slote, with the sense of ' cross-bar,' the hills being the thicker bars of the harrow. 
13. withe] withy. 24. sloted and tinded] noted and tyned. 

27. about Ryppon] in Notinghamshire and more Northward. 

28. bulder-stones] bolder-stones. Also spelt bulder-stones in the Book on Sur- 
veying, c. 40. 

41. hombers] numbers, ivithed] writhed. 

42. tresses] traces (in both places). 

50. after a shoure, &c] with great roles of wood, which Virgill much commends, 
and doubtless is very good after a shower of raine, to make the ground euen to 
mow. And note that the dryer your Lands be when you clot them, the sooner 
wil your clots break, and the more mold you shall haue. 

16. 3. for whete, drv.] on which fallowes the next yeare following, you shall 
sow your Rye, Wheat and Barly. 

24. stere] stirre (which is a later form). 

35. I. R. adds — "To fallow withall, sixe Oxen, or sixe Horses are no more 
then sufficient." 

17. 29. I. R. adds — " Also let not your heapes stand too long ere they be spread, 
for if they doo, the goodnesse of your manure, chiefely if it take a shower of raine, 
mil runne into the ground where the heape stands, and the rest when it is spread 
will little profit." 

2 9-35- !• R ' makes a new section of this, headed " Chapter 20. Of the diuers 
kindes of Manure, and which is the best." It is as follows. 

There be diuers sorts of Manures, and first of those that bee worst, as Swines 
dunge, which Manure breedeth and bringeth vp thistles ; the scourings of Hay- 
barnes or Corne barnes, which bringeth vp sundry weedes and quirks [quicks?]; 

134 Notes (17. 30—23. u). 

and rotten Chaffe, which diuers vse, but brings little good. The shoueling of 
highwayes and streetes is very good, chiefely for Barley. Horse-dunge is reasonable. 
The dunge of all maner of Cattel that chew the cudde is most excellent. Doues 
dunge for colde ground is best of all, but it must be spred very thinne. For 
grounds that are giuen to riue and chap, ashes is excellent, for they will binde 
and knit together. Also for such grounds it is most singular to burne the stubble 
on the ground, which is worth tenne manurings : for it fatneth (saith Virgill ) 
the soyle, and yeeldeth a secrete force of nourishment vnto the seede. Also, 
euery euill is tryed out by the fire, and the vnprofitable moisture is forced to 
sweat out, it giueth a vent and passage for the iuyce that quickeneth the Come, 
and it closeth the gaping vaines and holes of the earth, through which, eyther 
extreame moysture, extreame heate, or wind, would blast the Corne. Also in 
Cheshiere, Lankishiere, and other Countreys, they vse for manure a kinde of 
blewe Marble-like earth, which they call Marie. This is for those Countries an 
excellent manure, and though it be exceeding chargeable, yet through good 
neighbour-hood it quiteth the cost : for if you manure your groundes once in 
seauen or twelue yeares, it is sufficient, and look how many yeares he beareth 
Corne, so many yeares he will beare grasse, and that plenty. Straw layd to rot 
in the Winter, is good dung. 

30. sholynges ; i.e. shovellings. Note "the shoueling of highwayes " in the 
extract given just above. 

18. 3. flyte~\ shift (which is a gloss). So also in 1. 28. 

10. kelles begonne] kells be gone. This shews that the reading begonne in the 
original is a misprint for be gone. 

17. appeyreth them sore] abateth them much. 

23. goynge vppon] treading or going upon with their feete. 

31. appeyre] abate or diminish. 

H- for] from. This shews that the old idiomatic use of for (= against) was 
obsolescent in 1598. 

19. 5. charte] Cart. And perhaps we should read carte in the text ; the mean- 
ing of charte is, of course, cart. 

8. Here I. R. inserts — "And for this purpose of carrying, I take the Horse- 
Cart to be best, because they be most nimble, and goe with best speede ; & 
if the Horses be good, they will not at any time loose company with his 
neighbours. " 

20. 3. cocledrake] Cockell, Drake. And such should be the reading ; for see 

11. 13, 17- 

4. darnolde] Darnell, gouldes] Golds, haudoddes] Hadods. 
6. roughe] tough. 23. sterte] stalke (a gloss). 

32. is] are. Fitzherbert makes is agree with one. 
47. dee-nettles] Dee, Nettels (wrongly). 

21. 15. in the reane] away. I. R. omits the rest, down to wyddre. 

22. 10. at-after none] in the after-noone. But at-after is an old form, signifying 
much the same as after. See Glossary. 

12. beytynge] resting. At the end of the section, I. R. adds — " For this stirring 
foure horses are sufficient." 

23. 8. wyddrynge] withering (the later form). 

11. chowe] chewe. 16. swathe] swaithe. 

Notes (23. 17—33. 7). 135 

17. mane] man (!). The sense is, I suppose, a ridge of grass, which is likened 
to a horse's mane. 

20. moldywarpe-hills] Mole-hills, siyckes] sticks and stones. 

In the Book on Surveying, c. 25, we are told that the best way to spread 
• motddy-warpe hilles] is by bush-harrowing. 

24. 3. beyked~\ keyked (which I suspect to be nonsense). In line 12, beykyng 
is altered to baking. 

15. hasell and withee] Hassell or Withy. 

19. and let his warke] wherby he shall hinder his worke. 

21. and] if (a gloss of an obsolescent conjunction). So again in sect 25, 1. 16. 

25. 7. ouer] vpper. See the Glossary. 

22. crofote] Crow-foote. 

27. After ivyll, I. R. inserts " as they say." 

32. twon] twined (the weak form). 

26. 5. I. R. alters this so as to give a different sense — " when it is mowne, it 
will be so fast bound that no man can gather it so cleane but there wil be great 
losse." This is contradictory, and probably he missed the word not. 

27. 17. I. R. omits the phrase — "about Zelcestre and Martok." 

28. 13. And whan the barley, &c] and when the Barley is lead away, the Land 
must be raked with a great Rake with yron teeth, made fast about a mans necke 
with a string, and so drawne vp and downe the Lande, or els much Barley wil be 
lost. If Barley or Oates be layd through winde or ill weather, then it must needes 
be shorne, els not. The binding of barley in sheaues is very profitable, yet many 
that haue great crops will not attend so great trouble, but as soone as it is mowne 
make it in cocks like hay, and so carry it home : yet must they haue good respect 
vnto it, for if it bee full of weede and greeues {sic, for greenes), then must it 
lye till they be withered, or els it will burne in the mow. 

29. 2. sickles] steeles. After staffe-hokes, I. R. adds — " and some mow downe 
with Sythes." 

4. on repes] in reaps. 

11. codde] codds. This is a better reading. 

30. 7. to peruse] peruse. This early use of peruse in the sense of go through, 
lit. use up thoroughly, should be noted. It occurs again in the Book of Surveying, 
capp. 19, 24 ; see note to 33. 7. 

18. As to the fall of the tenth part of the angels, see my notes to P. Plowman. 
21. After truely, I. R. adds — " but how eyther of the sayings hold with vncon- 

scionable impropriations, adiudge the learned, let me imagine." 

31. 3. halfe-throne] halfe-theame (sic). 

32. 5. reke] Reeke, stack, or houell. 6. scaffolde] houell ; and in 11. 9, n. 
7. hedged for] hedged or paled from. 

11. shepe or catel] Sheep, Cattel, Horse, Carts, Wains, or Ploughs. 

33. 3. meane] reasonable. 4. ebbe] shallow. 
6. reane] raine of balke. 

33. 7. So also in the Book of Surveying, c 24. " And if it so be, than take 
thy ploughe, and begyn to plowe a forowe in the myddes of the syde of the land, 
and cast it downe as yf thou shulde falowe it, and so pervse both sydes tyl the 
rygge be cast down, and than take thy plough agayn, and begyn to plowe where 
thou dyddest plowe fyrste, and rygge all the remeynant upwarde, and so shalt thou 

136 Notes (34. i—43). 

bothe cast thy landes, and rigge them, and all at one plowyng. And this wyl 
make the lande to lye rounde, the whyche is good bothe for come and grasse." 

34. This is Chapter 15 in I. R.'s edition. After rye (1. 2), I. R. adds— 
" chiefely, if your ground be rich, clayie, and cold, but if it be dry and hote, then 
may you stay the latter season, as till the latter end of October." 

6. After faiowe, I. R. adds — " and plow it vnder without harrowing." 

8. After yere, I. R. adds — "as in other places euery third yeere, for the one 
haue four fieldes, the other three." 

23. whyte wheate] Oygrane Wheate. So in 1. 31 below, he has " Oygrane or 
white Wheate." 

25. anis] anns ; so also in 1. 29, and again in 11. 33, 36, 40, 42 ; we should 
rather have expected the spelling auns. 

33. and wyll make white breed ] it yeeldeth the finest flower of all. These three 
sorts of Wheat must euer bee sowne eyther on the Pease stubble, or on a fallow 
ground that is not very proud or rich, for too rich ground for these Wheats 
wil make them mildewe and not prosper. 

35. After whyte wheate, I. R. adds — "but they are deceaued." 
38. rudeste] ruddiest. This is clearly the right sense. 

43. flyntered\ flintred. At the end of the section I. R. adds a long piece, as 

"Lastly, there is another Wheat, which is called hole-straw Wheat ; it hath 
the largest eare of al Wheats, the boldest Come, and yeeldeth the most, the finest, 
though not the whitest floure ; it is foure-square, and hath short anns ; the straw 
is not hollow, but hath a strong pith throughout, by reason wherof in his growth 
no weather whatsoeuer can beare him downe, but still he will stand and prosper ; 
his straw yeeldeth as good thatch as Reeds, a singular profit for a Husbandman : 
and it is an excellent fewell to bake or brew with, euen as good as Gorsse or 
Whins : Onely Cattell will not eate it, nor is it good for litter ; this of all Wheats 
is the best : these last named are to be sowne on the fallow ground, and the better 
the ground is, the better they will prosper. 

When you sowe your Rye choose a dry season, for small wet killeth Rye. Rie, 
as the old husbands say, will drowne in the Hopper, that is, if in the Hopper hee 
catch a shower, his vigor is slaine. Wherfore the drier his mold, is the better, 
which is the cause that the hote, dry, and light sand is onely for Rye most 
excellent : his mold must harrow small like a Garden-bed, for the smallest clot 
hindereth his comming vp ; his sprout is so small and tender. 

Here I. R. inserts a whole chapter, as follows. 

Chapter 16. 
H How to make barraine ground bring foorth good Come. 

If thy ground be barraine and hard, yeelding nothing but ill Hay of insuing 
profit, then shal it be necessary for thee to vse these secrets in Art which is most 
auaileable. And first for thy Pease, Beanes, Barley, and Oates, if thou sowest 
any of them : sowe them vpon the eight day of April, which is the Equinoctiall 
vernall, 1 when Libra' 1 draweth the houres of the day and night to an euen and 

1 Printed— "Vernall. When." This cuts the sentence in half, and makes nonsense. 
9 A singular mistake ; he means Aries. 

Notes (35. 7— 38. 7)- ! 37 

iust proportion, and what Come is so sowne prospereth greatly : but. if thou wilt 
be assured that no Come thou sowest shall faile, then take Salt-peeter and mingle 
with thy Come, and sow it, and thy labor shall neuer be frustrate. For want of 
it, lake the black dreggs of Oyle, and wette thy seede ere thou sow it, and it shall 
vndoubtedly spring vp. If thou hast none of these, then take Pigions dunge, 
and mingle it with thy seede in thy hopper, and sow it : though it be not so good 
as the other, yet is the profitable vertue wonderfull. 

35. 7. Kente\ Kent, and Hartfordshiere. 

8. gist] vse. Gise = guise, way, manner, plan. I. R. has " great safety for 
sheding the Come," retaining here the old use of for. 

12. I. R. adds — For your seede, if you will be aduised by me, you shall change 
it alway once in two or three yeare. For to sow continually one seede bred in 
one soyle it will decay & grow ill : and in your exchange draw it alwayes from 
the harder soyle, and being brought into a better, it must the rather prosper. 

36. 3. reed] reeded. This form is wrong, like our use of wonted for wont 
(= won-ed). 

At the end of this section, I. R. closes his First Booke. 

37. 6. Here I. R. inserts— Of Sheepe there be two sorts, that is, blacke and 
white, but the white is the best, for the Wooll they beare there bee of diuers 
Staples : some long and hairie, as those bredde in barren cold Countries, and that 
is the worst ; some hard, short, and curld, as those bred in woody grounds, and that 
is better : some long, thicke, soft, and curled, and that is the best of all : and they 
be bredde vpon fine heathes, where they haue short, dry, and sweet foode. The 
profit of wooll the world can witnesse, and yeerely your Ewes will bring forth 
Lambes, which is an other commoditie ; and lastly, in some Countries, as in 
Suffolke, Essex, and Kent, with many other, they milke their Ewes, a gaine 
equall to the rest. Therfore when you chuse sheepe, elect them big-boand and 
well-woolld, their colours beeing white. For Virgill faines, that Cynthia, the 
Goddess of Chastitie, in whose thoughts could neuer enter impuritie, was 
enamored of Endimion onely through hys flocke of white sheepe. When therfore 
you haue got a flock of white sheepe, then you must chuse Rams to equall them, 
for preseruing the breede : your Ram would bee white also, and ouer and beside 
you must looke in his mouth, and if the roofe thereof lie blacke, then is hee 
not good : for either hee will then get blacke Lambes, or at least staine theyr 
fleeces with a duskie colour. The greater the homes of your Ram is, the 
worse ; for the pollard is the chiefest Ram. 

14. blyssomme or ryde] blossome and arride. 

16. at the Exaltation of the ho/ye crosse] in September. 

32. I. R. adds — Wherfore be carefull to keepe thy sheepe well, both with hay in 
Winter as well as with grasse in Sommer. Also in the Winter such Sheepe as 
thou intendest to fatte and sell, let them either haue straw or fleakes to lie vpon, 
for the cold earth will both disease them and hinder their feeding. 

38. 3. trouse] brouse. See these words in the glossary. 

6, 7. The sense is — and if she (the ewe) will not stand sideways beside the lamb ; 
i.e. in such a position that the lamb can approach her side. There is an evident 
misprint in 1. 7, where the original has ewe for lambe. I. R tries to make sense 
by turning all into call; thus — " and if she wil not stand side-long, call the Ewe 
and giue her a little hay." This is an evident attempt at making sense by falsify- 


138 Notes (39. 9—54. 22). 

ing the grammar of the text; for Fitzherbert does not say "and give her," but 
" than gyue her," i.e. then give her. Consequently all that precedes the word 
than belongs to the clause containing the supposition. 

39. 9. After theym, I. R. inserts — Yet Virgill aduiseth you in such a case to 
haue a leather full of sharp poynted nayles, which being put about the musell of 
the Lambe, if it offer to sucke, it will so pricke the dugges of the Ewe that she 
will not suffer it, but by that meanes weane it perforce : and by the same deuise 
you may weane all maner of Cattell whatsoeuer. See Virg. Georg. iii. 399. 

40. 14. slehe] shutt (which is a gloss). 

24. go belte, grese, i.e. go and belt them, and grease them. As to belting, see 
the next section. I. R. very stupidly alters the phrase to goe melt grease, though 
he has to retain the word belt below. 

41. 18. It is hard to make an old dog stoop ; i.e. it is hard to make him submit 
to being taught. This occurs in Heywood's Proverbs, 1562 (Hazlitt). In the 
most insipid way, I. R. alters to stoupe into for Sheepe, spoiling the whole saying. 

43. To medle terre is to mix tar. I. R. alters medle in the rubric to melt, and 
then substitutes mingled for medled in 1. 1. This is very clumsy. 

44. In the rubric, I. R. alters brome to browne, which is certainly wrong ; see 
the context. 

7. gelly] Ielly. Yet the spelling with g is well enough. 

8. pysse] pisse or lye. See lye in the glossary. 

14. or of faldynge, &c] or a folding of some such soft cloth or wooll. It is clear 
that I. R. did not know the word faldynge, or he would not thus have altered the 

17. sheydes] sheeds ; i.e. partings ; see sect. 42, 1. 4. 

24. for] from (as in other places). For = against, to prevent. 

45. 4. fyled] filled. This is wrong ; fyled means fouled, defiled. 

46. 3. rather] sooner. I. R. adds — There be diuers waters for this purpose, as 
water made of Sandiuer and burnt Allom, or the iuyce of Housleeke strained and 
mingled with Rose-water ; or the braines of an hatched, as thus : Take a linnen 
cloth, and burne it vpon the head of a hatchet, then blow away the ashes, and 
there wilbe on the hatchets head a kind of oyle, that taken and put in a sheepes 
eye, is most excellent. 

47. 3. clese] clawes. 9. elese] clea. Clea is claw ; clese = cleas, claws. 

15. pece of fleshe] peece of fleame (i.e. phlegm). 

48. 12. I. R. adds — to the great hinderance of the sale. 

49. I. pockes] Pox (the modern spelling). 

9. I. R. adds — but if you cannot wash them, then let them blood in the roofes 
of the mouth, and after they haue left bleeding, giue them a supping of milke and 
Saffron mingled together. 

51. 6. murtheryng or ouer-pressyng] smoothering or oppressing. And certainly 
smothering seems the right word. 

10. I. R. adds — Wash your sheepe in running Riuers, for standing Ponds are ill. 

52. 4. tarboxe] Tarbox, or bronne salue. Here bronne is a misprint for bronne ; 
and broune is a mistake for brome. See note to sect. 44 above. 

54. 14. After shepe, I. R. inserts — salt marshes onely excepted. 
22. kelles vppon the grasse] kels vpon the grasse like to Spinners webs. (A 
spinner is a spider. ) 

Notes {51. 31— 56. 9)- J 39 

31. while snailes~\ white finells (not clearly printed). 
55. 2. stryndes] strings (badly). So also in 1. 4. 

16. lyttel qidkens\ a little quicknes (absurdly). flo&es] flocks. But flukes are 

Here I. R. inserts a chapter on goats, as follows. 

Chapter 20. 
% Of Goates and their profit or vse. 

Thus hauing sufficiently debated touching the choosing, cherishing, and curing 
of sheep, I thinke it good a little to speake of Goates and. their vse : a kinde of 
Cattell which albe heere in England we estimate not to his worth, yet in other 
places they be of highest valuation : and the excellent poet Virgill in his 
Countrey muse, draweth them and sheepe to march in one euen equipage. Thus 
comparing them, the Goate (saith he) yeeldeth in milke three times the quantity a 
sheepe doth, theyr young ones are more plentifull, for they will haue two or three, 
and sometimes more, and their beards yearely being shorne and spunne, haue made 
an excellent during stuffe, which for the continuance, hath made Marriners desirous 
onely to weare it in their garments, so that though their beards cannot in quantity 
and fineness be equall with the fleece of the sheepe, yet ioyning their milke and 
their young ones to their beards, there is no wonderfull difference. 

Their manner of keeping, both wintering and sommering, is in the Poets rules 
the same that the Sheepe hath, onely theyr foulding and feed excepted : for the 
foulding they are not needfull, and for their feede, Woods are the best, or the 
toppes of Mountaines : bushie and thorny grounds vnprofitable for any other vse, 
for the feede of Goates is most excellent. They will obserue custome much better 
than Sheepe, for beeing but once or twice vsed there-vnto, they will duely euery 
morning and euening come home, to pay theyr due debt or tribute to the milke- 
paile. Theyr milk is excellent, and a great restoratiue, principally for a consump- 
tion, of what nature soeuer. The fourth howre after the Sun rise, is the best time 
for Goates to drinke in. For the weaning of young Kidds from their Dams, vse 
the meanes that you doo with Ewes and Lambes. 

Of all Goates that are, Virgil most commends the Cinyphian Goates, bred by 
the Towne Cinyps, as Cattell of wondrous great cowmoditie : their disprofit is 
onely amongst young springs or plants, for they wil crop any young thing that 
groweth, and hinder the springing thereof, also they wil pill away the barke of 
Trees, to the spoyle of the trees : yet no more then fallow Deare, or redde Deare 
will, wherfore where the one is suffered, the other may be tollerated. Cf. Virg. 
Georg. iii. 306-317. 

56. 4. and fools] foales, and pigs. 

7. kye\ Kine. And so in 1. 2 above. 

9. After wel I. R. inserts— let thy Cowe be beetle-browed, and sterne of looke, 
her head and necke big, and from her throate hanging downe to her shanks a large 
and long dew-lappe ; let her sides be proportionlesse and great, and euery part of 
her, euen her very foote, so bigge as bigge may be. Let her eares be large and 
hairie, and her taile long, euen to the grounde, and bushie : if she be spotted with 
white, or shrewd or wicked with her home, it is an error, but no fault, for it 
shewes mettle and goodnes ; in generall, the more bull-like a Cow is, the better 
she is. Let thy Cowe be foure yeeres old ere she take the Bulk and at tenne 

140 Notes (56. 17—65). 

yeeres sell her off, for then is her best caluing-time past. And thus much for thy 
Kine whose profit must goe to thy paile. 

17. I. R. adds — because he is hyde-bound, which is a foule infirmitie. 

57. 1. kye] fatte Kine. 2. fore-croppe] fore-crops. 

4. hucbone] huckle-bone. nache] natch. 

5. I. R. inserts a after cowe ; this is an improvement. 

58. 20. husbandes] antient Husbandmen. That is, I. R. repudiates the notion 
as erroneous. 

32. I. R. adds — then giue him in a home to drinke, olde Ale, Saffron, Treakle, 
and Diascordion, boyled together. * 

34- by goddes leue] as writeth Chyron, Phillyrides, and Melampus. A singular 

59. 11. feitergrasse] Fetter-grasse. 

60. I. dewbolne] dew-boulne. Bolne = bollen, swollen. 

14. I. R. adds — and then with a little Tarre and fresh Butter to cure the wound. 

61. 4. ronne on water] runne and water. The substitution is needless ; to run 
on water means to run with water. 

15. and this, &c] to chafe him [i.e. to warm him] : and this cure is failelesse, so 
God be pleased. 

62. Rubric. The tiirne] Of the turne, otherwise called the sturdy. 
3. /or] of (this use of for being obsolescent). 

18. for perysshynge, i.e. to avoid piercing. Perish {ox pierce occurs in the various 
readings to P. Plowman, B. xvii. 189, and Wycliffe, Job xl. 19. 

24. I. R. inserts — and anoynt it eyther with fresh butter or clarified Hoggs 

65. 3. Starkely] stakely (a misprint). Starkly is stiffly. 

5. I. R. adds — yet if a poore man shall haue such a beast & cannot spare his 
worke : if he will euery morning or euening bathe his legs with Lynseede Oyle : 
it shall make him indure his worke, and keepe the beast from any great paine or 

Here I. R. inserts two chapters, as follows. 

Chapter 31. 

f A soueraigne vnguent to cure the scabbe, itch, botches, or any surfeite 
whatsoeuer that commeth of heat or pouerty : or by mischance : taken from a 
most authenticate Authour. 

Take a good quantitie of the blacke dregges of Oyle, foure penny-worth of 
Quicksiluer wel killed, 1 as much Brimstone, Pitch, Wax, and Hoggs-grease as 
will make it thicke like an oyntment : boyle these together, and with it annoynt 
the beast that is vnsound, and this will vndoubtedly cure him, and that in very 
short season, if he be diligently tended. 

Chapter 32. 
f Another most excellent receite, to cure all manner of wounds, impos- 

tumes, vlcers, or Fistulaes. 
Take the iuyce of the Onion called Scilla, take Hellebor, and Bitumen Iudai- 

1 I.e. mortified. " Mortify, to change the outward form of a mixt body, as when quick- 
silver . . . . is dissolved in an acid menstruum " ; Phillips. 

Notes (66. 27—83). 141 

cum, mingle these together, and incorporate them in manner of a plaister. The 
Macedonians and Geloniatis to this receit adde the opening of a vaine in the sole 
of the foote of a beast, and then to giue him to drinke milke and horses blood 
mingled together, which cureth all inward impostumes, surfeits or poysons, and to 
the outward griefe to apply the plaister, which was neuer knowne to be frustrate. 

66. 27. I. R. has — and it is better to weane thy Calues at grasse then at hard 
meate, if they went to grasse before. 

68. Here I. R. introduces a long flourish about the nobleness of horses, 
instancing the fabulous brood born to Neptune and Ceres (who transformed herself 
into a mare), the transformation of Saturn into a horse, and the like. 

22. I. R. has — and that shall yee knowe by diuers signes, as by her riding of 
other Horses, by her flinging about the fieldes, or lastly by her priuie part, for 
that will twirle open, and shut againe, many times in an houre. 

37. lx.] fortie (by misreading lx. as xL). 

63 — 79. I. R. varies this, and has — put to your white Mares a daple-gray 
Horse, so shall he gette all daples ; to your bright bay mares a blacke bay horse, 
and so shall you gette all broune bayes ; and to your blacke Mares, a blacke 
Horse, so he haue white feet, white ratch, and white feather ; so shall he gette 
well-marked blacke Colts. But for the Carte it much matters not for colours, but 
for knowledge sake know that th^ broune bay, the daple-gray, the bright bay, and 
the white lyard, are the best colours ; all other colours haue defects and are 
imperfect : of markes one white foote, a white starre, a white snyp, or a white 
rache is good : and an Ostrige feather in any place where the horse cannot see it, 
is the best of all the markes that can be for a horse. And thus much for horses 
or mares to be chosen or vsed. 

70. 3. and hygh grasse\ and much fogge. 

8. flasshes] and flagges. 9. bunnes] bands (wrongly). 

32. aftermath] after-croppe. 33. gyrre, &*c] gyre, and to scoure so much that 
hee wil hardly endure to labour. 

39. horse] horses. But horse is the true old plural form, the sb. being neuter ; 
A.S. hors, pL hors. Nevertheless, Fitzherbert himself has horses in the line 

42. put] strike and hurte. 

73. 1. rase or a ball] starre. A ball is a streak ; hence the mod. E. bald, 
M.E. ball-ed. See bald in my Etym. Diet. 

74. 2. to be styffe-docked] a stifle docke or stearne of his taile. 

77. 3. sy de-tailed ; syde means 'long.' 

78. 2. cressed] crested. And probably cressed is a mere misprint 
5. holowe-foted] hollow-hooued. 

79. 7. chowynge] chewing. 

80. I. R. expands this chapter and the succeeding chapters so much that it 
would take up too much space to print all his additions. He gives recipes for the 
cure of the various diseases, and inserts chapters 'Of the head-ach or meagrum,' 
' Of the staggers,' and ' Of the Vines.' l I can only undertake to give here a few 
notes to illustrate Fitzherbert's text. 

83. I. R. has — The mourning of the tongue most commonly called the Canker. 

1 Sic ; but we commonly find viues or vives. And in fact, Fitzherbert treats of it below, 
in section 91. 

142 Notes (86—127. 4). 

86, 87. I. R. considers these two diseases together, and discourses of them 
at length, saying that he has ' cured many very sore spent.' 

88. I. R. explains ' Strangulion ' as appearing ' in a swelling impostume as 
bigge as a mans fist, iust betweene a horses chaules.' 

89—113. I. R. omits nearly all these sections, excepting 91 (which agrees with 
his • Chapter 42. Of the Vines ') and sect. 109 (which is his Chapter 54). 

109. I. R. has the rubric — 'Of enterfayring ' ; and says — ' Enterfairing is a 
griefe that commeth sometimes by ill shooing, and sometimes naturally, when a 
Horse trots so narrow that he hewes [knocks] one legge vpon another.' It is what 
we now call 'over-stepping.' The derivation is from the French form of Lat. 
inter-ferire • and it is from this term in farriery that we have taken the mod. E. 

116. I. R. omits this section. 

118. I. R. introduces here ' Chapter 55. How to make the pouder of honey 
and lime.' 

119. 2, 6. The French lines are in doggerel rime, and the English translations 
seem also to be meant for verse, such as it is. The omission of the words or 
iourneye (in 1. 8) would improve the scansion. 

8. or nyghl, i.e. ere night. Altered by I. R. to out-right. 

120. 4. tame] lame (!) ; an ominous mistake, for which the compositor should 
have the credit. 

121. 4. We may feel sure that this sayinge was originally in verse. Perhaps it 
ran thus : 

" He that hath sheep, and swyne, and hyue, 
Slepe he, wake he, he maye thryue." 

Or we might write been (Chaucer's plural of bee), riming with theen, the usual 
M. E. word for 'thrive.' 

9. Hogges. As to the exact sense of this word, see the note on it in the 
' Corrections and Additions ' to the larger edition of my Etymological Dictionary. 

122. 38. sclatte] slate. 

124. Here I. R. begins his third book, relating to timber and distillations. 

12. Midsummer-moon is an old phrase ; it occurs in the second line of 
the prologue to the Plowman's Tale, which is inserted in some editions of 
Chaucer, though really written by the anonymous author of the Plowman's 

33. muldes a spade-graffe depe] mould with a spade a foot deepe. 

35. peruse] doo still. 

39. I. R. adds— or els beeing drowned, not to prosper. 

125. 4. fyue fote brod, &^c] fiue foote broad, then it would be set with three 
chesses or rowes one aboue another, but of what depth or breadth soeuer, it 
would be double sette, &c. 

5. hedge] dead hedge. 

126. 2. ellore] Elder (the later form). 

6. edderynge] wood ; see the glossary. So, in 1. 7> !• R« translates eddered 
by bounde ; and again in 1. 16, he alters edderinges to byndings. 

9. trouse] brouse (as above) ; see 38. 3. 

127. 4. the more halue] more thew halfe. But the more halfe, i.e. the greater 
part, is right enough, and the older phrase. In 1. 23, it is left unaltered. 

Notes (127. 8—140. 2). 143 

8. in processed vnwares. 

15. slaue] stand (clearly not the right word). In 1. 32, I. R. has the spelling 
sleaue. So also in sect. 133, 1. 6. 

128. 21. I. R. omits and bolnelh ; in 1. 29, he alters doing to rise. 

129. 10. to leuse] so looseneth. 

11. gete] got. But gete is the old form of the pp. ; A.S. geten. 

130. 4. casses] Kasses. I. R. omits or wydes. 

5. slauynges] sleanings (sic). The form popeler reminds me that I have heard 
the large poplar-tree at ' Hyde-park Corner ' in Cambridge called ' the popular 
tree.' See 1. 23. 

12, 16. osyerde wethy] Asiere Withy. 

131. 7. kydde] kid or faggot 9, 16. brenne] burae. 
14. to peruse them] persist. 

132. 4. I. R. omits ' and also the yues.' 

5. bowi\ hewe. But bowe refers to the bending of it before it is cut ; the bent 
piece is called the byghte in the next line. I. R. alters byghte to bough. 

18. brede] breadth (which is the later form). 

21. xvi.] one and twenty (by misreading xvi. as xxi.). 

133. 1. gyse] vse of men. 

6. slaue] sleaue ; and in 1. 16. 10. hym] the seller. 
1 1. an] one (which is the meaning intended). 

14. ouer] vpper. 

134. 7. garches] garthes. In ed. 1534, it is plainly garches ; but confusion 
between c and / is extremely common, as they were written nearly alike. 

18. a greatte] by great. The two phrases have different senses ; a greate means 
1 in the lump, ' without cutting or dressing the trees, as appears from the next line. 
But by great means * by wholesale' ; which contradicts 1. 1. 

136. 6. graffe] graft (throughout ; which is the later form). 

10. I. R. omits the narower kyr/e, and ; to avoid the word kyrfe. 

137. 10. pyrre-stocke] Peare-tree stocke. 

14. I. R. says — a Crab-tree stocke is good, but the Apple-tree stocke it-selfe is 
much better. 

138. 1. lanses] branches. 10. nothynge] any thing. 
26. marie)'] marie. 29. cleauynge] place clouen. 

30. for chynynge of the claye] for feare the clay through drines should cleaue or 

33. clayenge] cleauing (which is clearly wrong). 

36. I. R. adds — And three grafts are enough for any stock whatsoeuer, and 
sooner they will couer the head then foure, fiue, or sixe. 

139. 6. tenaunte] tennant. 9. ponch] punch. 
10. stop] scope, one syde] other side. 

19. clyppe] slip. 20. After growe, I. R. adds — and to fence it close about with 
some thick-set hedge. 

After this section I. R. inserts 'Chapter 17. Howe to graft by leafe, causing 
all manner of fruit to grow vpon one tree.' His method is to insert what we 
should now call a slip, with a stalk and leaf growing from it. 

140. 2. scyences] syens. In fact, scyences (= scions-es) is a double plural, and 
was probably a provincial term, like nesteses or nesses for nests. So also fairies-es 

144 Notes (140. 6—141. 59). 

is a country name for fairies, which some lexicographers, not understanding, 
actually write and print as Pharisees ! 

6. he wyll~\ you will. This alteration is made wherever the phrase occurs. 

8. lyke] like or prosper in any wise. 

*»* Here I. R. inserts a large portion of his own (or perhaps copied from 
other sources) without any hint that it is not in his original. The insertion extends 
from p. 103 to p. 143, and contains the following chapters. 

Chapter 19. Of gardening or planting. 

Chapter 20. Of distillation, what it is. 

Chapter 21. Of Beanes and the distillation thereof. 

Chapter 22. Of Cherries and their distillation. 

Chapter 23. Of Walnuts and their distillation. 

Chapter 24. Of small Nuts and their distillation. 

Chapter 25. Of Honny and the distillation thereof. 

Chapter 26. Of Apples and their distillation. 

Chapter 27. Of Peaches and their distillation. 

Chapter 28. Of Mallowes and their distillation. 

Chapter 29. Of Grapes and their distillation. 

Chapter 30. Of Quinces and their distillation. 

Chapter 31. The distillation of Cardus [sic] benedictus, or the blessed thistle. 

Chapter 32. The distillation of Angellica. 

Chapter 33. The distillation of Cammomile. 

Chapter 34. The distillation of Germander. 

Chapters 35 — 40. The distillation of Eyebright, Hopps, wood Lilly, Balme, 
Strawberries, and Cinamon. 

Chapter 41. Of Nutmegs and their vse. 

Chapters 42 — 44. Of Mace, Pepper, and Cloues. 

Chapter 45 . An excellent Balme to take away any blemish vppon the skinne. 

Chapter 46. A receite to cure any wound or hurt. 

Chapter 47. An approved receite for the gowte. 

With this Chapter he closes ' the third booke of Husbandry. ' 

The fourth book has an introductory chapter, not in Fitzherbert, subdivided 
into sections with the following headings. The office of a Steward of a houshold. 
For prouiding of victuals. The Steward and Garniter. 1 The Steward and Miller. 
The Steward and Baker. The Pantry. The Butler. The Seller. 3 The Ewrie. 3 
Of the Cooke. Of the Scullery. Of the Vsher of the Hall. Of the Yeoman of 
the Wardrop [Wardrobe]. The Slaughter-man. The Cater [caterer]. The 
Clarke of the Kitchin. 

After this, I. R. condescends to return to his original. 

141. 36. sherde] breach (which is a gloss). 

49. tyne] shut (a gloss), iraile] tale (probably a misprint). 

59. put it] blot them. 72. loked vppon] attended vnto. 

1 I.e. the servant who had charge of the garners or granaries, and whose business it was 
to send corn to the mill, the stable, and the poultry-yard. 

* Cellar. 

3 Ewery ; where were kept 'Napery, Basons, Ewers, sweete waters, Perfumes, Torches, 
Supper-lights, Prickets, sises of Waxe, and such like ;' also ' tallow Candles, Candle-sticks, 
Snuffers, and such other.' 

Notes (142—144). 145 

142. This is a most singular section, since it presupposes that a gentleman's 
servant would be able to recognise the rhythm of an English hexameter. As an 
early experiment in hexameters, it is very curious. In the original, it is printed 
as prose, but each line ends with a full stop, and the next begins with a capital 
letter. I have therefore printed it as verse. It is, however, of a rather rude 
character ; horru bogel hardly comes up to our idea of a dactyl, nor and shoes to 
that of a spondee. For the reader's assistance, I may remark that the dactyls are 
as follows : Purse dagger, -chef shoyng-, horne boget, -ter sadel-, hatte with thy, 
Borne arroiues, stringe and thy, Penne paper, -waxe pommes, bokes thou re-, -ble 
nedle, teste that thy, -gel gyue thy, se he be, Make mery, synge and thou, hede to thy, 
gere that thou. The rest are spondees. 

I. R., not perceiving the law of rhythm, makes wild work of it. He calls it 
"An excellent rude Lesson in rude ryme." He divides the lines rightly, and 
leaves the first three verses untouched. But the rest assume the following fearful 

Penne, paper, incke, parchment, redde waxe, punisse [sic), 

and bookes doe thou remember, 
Penknife, combe, thymble, needle, thred, and poynt, 

least that by chaunce thy garth breake. 
Bodkin, knyfe, rubber, giue thy horse meate, 
See he be shodde well, make merry, sing if thou can, 
And take heede to thy needments, that thou loose none. 
I think we may fairly put these down as being the worst verses extant in the 
English language ; though this is saying a good deal 

143. 7. The saying doubtless represents a rude couplet in verse. The dative 
case wyfe (governed by of) was formerly spelt wyue, and rimed with thryue. 

144. Salomon, Solomon. But where to find, in his writings, this remarkable 
sentence, I do not know. 

*»* After this section I. R. inserts a quantity of additional matter, which he 
tells us (at p. 174) is drawn from his ' owne experience in byrds and foules.' 
The additional chapters treat of choice of cocks, hens for brood, number of 
eggs to each hen, chickens, diseases of poultry (especially of the pip), choice 
of poultry, how to fat poultry, how to make capons, where to keep poultry, 
how to choose, keep, and fatten geese, how to keep ducks, peacocks, ' ginny or 
turkie-cocks,' pigeons, pheasants, turtles, partridges, and swans ; after which 
digression he returns to his text. I may remark that he considers it essential 
that a hen should sit upon an odd number of eggs, say 19, and that matters 
should be so arranged as to provide for the hatching of chickens ' in the 
increase of the Moone.' The leaves of a bay-tree, 'or els some Bents or 
Grasse,' will preserve eggs 'from the hurt of thunder.' Chickens ought not 'to 
be breathed vpon by any Snake, Toade, or other venomous thing ' ; if they are, 
you must quickly burn amongst them some ' Galbanum, or womans hayre.' 
Those that have the pip should be dieted on Hearbgrace [rue] or garlic. Geese 
1 are more watchfull then Doggs.' ' You must vse in the time of brooding, to lay 
vnder your egges [of geese] the rootes of Nettles, to the end the Gosling may 
escape stinging of Nettles, which otherwise many times killeth them. ' If geese 
are to have fat livers, feed them on dry figs mingled with water. Ducks chiefly 
delight in acorns. If you praise a peacock, ' he will presently sette vp his taile. ' 
A turkey-cock ' is very highly esteemed of, both for his rarenesse and greatnes of 
body ;' and we are told that he changes the colour of the wrinkled skin about his 

146 Notes (145. 15—155). 

head at pleasure, either to white, red, blue, yellow, ' or what other colour els hee 
list ; which thing maketh him seeme wonderfull st[r]ange to them that behold it ' 
. . ' Their greatest diseases is the Pip and the Squecke.' As to pigeons, ' I haue 
knowne some that haue builded their Doue-houses vpon high pillars ouer the 
midst of some Pond or great water, both because they delight much in water, and 
also to keepe them the safer from vermine.' Swans ' will, when they waxe olde, 
declare the time of their own death to be neere approching, by a sweete and 
lamentable note which they then sing.' 

145. 15. I. R. has — 'Wherefore it is conuenient (I say) that they loue each 
other as effectually as loue can in the best sence comprehend : and this worke 
especiallie, a woman is bound both by law and nature to performe.' Why so ? 

146. I. R. omits 11. 2 — 7 ; he was certainly a Protestant. 

8. redy. This is the old word for dressed, as might be shewn by many exam- 
ples. It may suffice to say that I. R. explains araye theym in 1. 1 1 by make them 

10. soc/e] suckle. I. R. omits sye vp thy mylke, which he probably did not 

13. I. R. omits and take thy parte with theym ; and, for serue thy swyne (1. 20) 
he puts looke to the seruing of thy Swine. Customs were probably changing. 

31. the gleyd] Kites. And fullymartes is omitted. 

35. After eate, I. R. adds — in Sallets, or otherwise. 

42. hecheled] heckled. 43. wrapped] warped. 

51. ripeled, i.e. rippled ; I. R. has repled. In 1. 41 above, I. R. has repealed; 
yet this is, I suppose, the same word. 

53. token] Locken. It means locked or tightly closed up ; for lock was once 
a strong verb. 

57. pulled] culled (which is an ingenious alteration and perhaps right). 

104. The Knight of the Tour- Landry is the book here referred to, and was one 
of the books printed by Caxton. The edition printed by the Early English Text 
Society, and edited by T. Wright, is so easily accessible that it is needless to say 
more here than that Fitzherbert's description of it is perfectly correct. 

147. 12. rendil] tendit. This correction may be right, but I am not sure of 
it. The Leonine (or riming) verses quoted cannot be of any great antiquity, and 
it is quite possible that rendit is intended as a Low-Latin translation of the French 
rend, pr. s. oirendre. The true Latin word is, of course reddit ; which, however, 
gives no rime. Fitzherbert's translation is intended to be in verse. 

148. 3. brynke] brim. "Better spare at brim than at bottom"; Hazlitt's 
Proverbs. And see note to Tusser, 10. 35. 

12. tedure] teathure (not a good spelling.) 
15. lees] ground, ply tie] shift. 17. tyed] stakt. 
26. pulteth hym in the pynf olde] impoundes him. 
38. ren ryot] runne. 

43. it is meruayle] gracious were th<? stars of thy natiuitie (a fine phrase !). 
150, 151, 152, 153. I. R. omits these four sections. 

153. 3. This quotation, from Dionysii Catonis Disticha, iii. 7, appears also in 
P. Plowman, B. xii. 23. 

28. I do not know where to find this quotation. 

155. 10. behouable] behoouefull (which is a better form).. 

Notes (156—172). 147 

156. In the rubric, I. R. has — 'what riches are'; but in 1. I, he. has — ' It is 
now requisite to know what riches is.' Already riches was becoming a plural 
substantive. It may be remarked that I. R. omits the Latin forms of all the 

157. 19. duetie] debt (which is what is meant). So also in 11. 22, 24. 

160. 2. After declare, I. R. inserts — and euery booke of Common prayer dooth 
containe them. A pertinent remark. 

161. 3. I. R. omits the reference to the Athanasian Creed, and says we must 
' beleeue stedfastly the Catholick fayth.' 

25. I. R. omits from The fulfyllynge to the end of the section. For a descrip- 
tionjof the seven works of mercy, see Spenser, F. Q. 1. 10. 36. 

163. 3. I. R. has — and hast a stedfast fayth in Christ. He has almost wholly 
rewritten this section, and says we are bound ' to come to common prayer ;' and 
omits the quotation from St. Ambrose. 

164. 7. It is remarkable that the author should refer us to the 3rd chapter of 
Proverbs instead of the 15th. Our forefathers seem to have had no idea either of 
giving a correct reference or of verifying one. 

10. Qui a is printed, in Fiuherbert, as Quia, in one word. The correction 
being obvious, I have made it. 

18. Isadoras] Osorius. Why this alteration is made, I cannot tell. In 1. 29 
of the next section, I. R. has Isidore, and in 1. 37, Isidorus. 

165. 39. Hampole\ Hanapole (wrongly). Richard Rolle, of Hampole, was the 
author of the Pricke of Conscience, edited by Dr. Morris for the Philological 
Society, and of numerous other works, including some Religious Treatises edited 
by Mr. Perry for the Early English Text Society. 

47. I. R. omits this line ; he probably did not like the word oratory. 
52. The first book of Samuel was formerly called the first book of Kings. 

166. I. R. rewrites this section, and avoids any reference to Latin or to the 
Ave Maria. 

167. 19, 20. I. R. gives the Latin lines, and his own translation, as follows. 

The ghostly enemy doth not stay 
Till tempted persons doe obey : 
For yeelding, hee a Lyon is, 
Gainestood, a flie : his pray doth misse. 

His syntax is as bad as his translation. 

34. stehe] shutte. 35. styfly\ manfully. We have here an idea which is fre- 
quently met with in our literature. It may suffice to refer to Grosseteste's Chastel 
d' Amour, the sermon called Soules Warde printed in Dr. Morris's Specimens of 
English, part i., the extract from the Ayenbite of Inwyt printed in Morris and 
Skeat's Specimens, part ii., the Tower of Truth and Castle of Caro described in 
Piers the Plowman, &c. We are also reminded of Bunyan's Holy War. 

168. 31. Here again Fitzherbert gives us the wrong reference to the Proverbs, 
viz. to Chap. xiv. instead of Chap. xix. His reading Veneratur dominus} is 

169. 11. vnable to be foughten agaynst] inuinsible. 
13, 14. slecketh] slacketh. slake] quench. 

35. I. R. copies Fitzherbert's reference to Chap. 35 ; but read 34. 
172. 14. eonuerted] conuarted (a peculiar pronunciation). 

148 Notes (172). 

21. This quotation from St. Augustine appears also in Piers Plowman, B. v. 

50. This last paragraph is called by I. R. ' Fitzherberts protestation ;' yet he 
actually alters his author's words, substituting • the holy scriptures ' for ' al holy 
churche,' with various other smaller 'corrections.' 

To crown his effrontery, he gives the address of ' The Authour to his Booke ' 
in the following extraordinary (amended) form ! 

Goe grosse fram'd image of a holy saint, 

present my loue, though rude my pensill paint ; 
If any blame thee for deformitie, 

say Nature calld thee, and not Oratorie ; 
If on thy browes be starres of ignorance, 

say Fortunes pype did neuer teach thee dance. 
Wish them amend which best can iudge thine ill, 

so shall both thou and I bee happy still. 


The references are to the sections and lines, as numbered. Besides the usual 
contractions, note that v. = verb in the infinitive mood, pr. s. = present 
tense, third person singular, unless I p. or 2 p. is added. Proper names 
are included in this index. 

Able, adj. fit, suitable, 121/i6. 
Abrode, adv. abroad, IO/30. 
Abused, pp. ill-suited, I0I/13. 
Accompte, s. account, inventory, I51/l ; 

A-compte, account, 146/92. 
A-cloyde, s. accloyed ; a hurt caused 

by running a nail into a horse's foot, 

115/i. From O. F. cloyer, same as 

doner, to nail. 
Acre, s. acre, 12/4. 
A-crosse, adv. on the cross, crosswise, 

Affreyd, s. a disease in horses caused 

by hard riding, 104/i. Cf. E. fray ; 

and see frayer in Cotgrave. 
After, prep, according to, 15/22, 121/12 ; 

close to, 25/22. 
Aftermath, s. a second crop of grass, 

All-onely, adv. only, 37/23, 65/4. Cf. 

Lowl. Sc. al-anerly, only. 
Almes, s. alms, I68/3. 
Almes-dedes, s. alms-deeds, 168/r. 
Al-onely, adv. alone, Hl/9. See All- 
Ambrose, St., 156/23, 163/9, 167/1 1. 
Amended, pp. mended, 141/32. 
Amerced, pp. fined, 148/22. 
An, num. adj. one, 133/n. 
Anastasius, 16 4/ 14. 
And, conj. if, 6/12, 24/21, 25/i6, 68/62, 

7O/34, 142/7. 
Anis, s. pi. awns, 34/25, 2 9- 
Anna, Hannah, I65/53. 
Apparell, s. apparel, 15I/3. 
Appeyre, v. injure, 18/31 ; appeyreth, 

pr. s. impairs, injures, I8/17. 
Aray, s. array, 151/13. 
Araye, imp. s. dress, 146/n. 
A-slope, adv. slanting, 2/24. 
Assaut, s. assault, 167/37- 

At-after, prep, after, 22/ro. (Not un- 
common.) It occurs in Chaucer, 
C.T. 11531. 

Athanasii, gen. s. of Athanasius, I6I/4. 

Attempte, v. to tempt, I67/4. 

Atteynt, s. attaint, a disease caused by 
overstepping, 113/i. " Of an upper 
attaint, or nether attaint, or any hurt 
by over- reaching." — G. Markham, 
Husbandry, b. i. c. 54. 

Auctorytie, s. authority, 141/ 19 ; auc- 
torytes, //. powers, prol. 21. 

Aue, Ave Maria, 166/ 12. 

Augur, j. auger, tool for boring holes, 
41/8 ; gen. augurs, i.e. made by an 
auger, 3/57. 

Auoyde, v. depart, 1 67/36. 

Austyn, St. Augustine, I06/19, 157/3, 
I08/1, 164/26, I68/25. 

Auyse, pr. s. advise, 141/i. 

Awry, adv. awry, 50/5. 

Axil-pynnes, s. pi. axle-pins, 5/20. 

Axiltre, s. axle-tree, 5/i8. 

Backe-syde, s. back side, back, 127/g. 
Badger, s. badger, 71/7. 
Bagges, s. pi. bags, Hl/69. 
Bakbandes, s. pi. back-bands for a horse 

in a cart, 5/28. 
Baken, s. bacon, 121/i8. 
Balkes, s. pi. divisions of land (covered 

with grass) in an open field, 6/17. 
Ball, s. a white streak, 73/i. See Bald 

in my Etym. Diet. 
Band, s. band for barley, 28/8. See 

Bandes, s. pi. bands, the bands that tie 

bundles of faggots together, 131/8. 
Bargeins, s. pi. transactions, 36/20. 


Glossarial Index. 

Barbes, s. pi. the barbies, small excre- 
scences of flesh in a horse's mouth, 
82/i. See Lampas. 

Baste, s. piece of bast, 13 8/30 ; bastes, 
pi. 136/22. 

Bate, v. to lower, abate, 15 3/ 16. 

Bauson, s. badger, 71/7- 

Bayly, or Baylye, s. bailiff, 134/3, 
Ul/57, H8/40. 

Bayting. See note to sect. 8 (ch. 8, 11. 
9 and 13) ; p. 131. 

Beate, v. improve [not beat], 8/20. 
Lowl. Sc. beet, A. S. be'tan, to better. 
" Beet-axe, the instrument used in 
beeting ground in denshering." — 

Beetle-browed, having projecting brows, 
note to 56/9 ; p. 139. 

Begonne, prob. an error for be gone, i.e. 
are dropped, I8/10. See the note. 

Begotten, pp. obtained, 1 69/30, 42. 

Behouable, adj. fitting, 15 5/ 10. 

Belte, v. to shear the buttocks and tails 
of sheep, 40/24. Burl is used in the 
same sense ; see belt and burl in Old 
Country Words, ed. Britten, pp. 134, 

Belybandes, s. pi. belly-bands for a 

horse in a cart, 5/28. 
Bende, adj. bent, 3/49 ; as s. bent piece, 

Bendfoder, s. fodder of straw and hay 

mingled, note to 6/27 ; p. 131. 
Be-pysse hym-selfe, give out moisture, 

Bere-barleye, s. a kind of barley, 13/26. 

A reduplicated word. Bere is the 

same as bar- in bar-ley. A.S. bere, 

Bernard, St., 156/25, 164/ 10. 
Best lykinge, adj. superl. goodliest, best 

in appearance, 48/13. 
Besyde, prep, on the one side, sideways 

out of, 139/17. 
Better, adj. conipar. 5/i2. 
Beyked, pp. warmed, dried, 24/23. 

M.E. beken, answering to an A.S. 

form becan * (not found), formed as a 

secondary verb, by vowel-change, 

from A.S. boc, pt. t. of bacan, to bake. 

So also lay from lie, set from sit, etc. 

See beken in Stratmann, who refers to 

Le Bone Florence, 1. 99, Iwain and 

Gawain, 1. 1459, O.E. Homilies, i. 

269, and Test, of Creseyde, 26. 
Beykyng, s. warming, drying, 24/i2. 

See above. 

Beytynge, pres. pt. feeding, lit. baiting, 

Bier, s. buyer, 1 34/30. 
Bigge, adj. big, large (with reference to 

clods), IO/4. 
Blacke-thorne, s. blackthorn, 124/14. 
Blankettes, s. pi. blankets, 146/79. 
Blend-corn, s. wheat mixed with rye, 

34/19. (Blend = blended.) 
Blesse, v. to bless, 146/2. 
Blome, pr. pi. bloom, 24/i6. 
Bloude, s. blood, 145/8 ; also the name 

of a sickness among sheep, 48/2. 
Bloud-yren, s. bleeding-iron, lancet, 

Blyssomme, v. to copulate, said of 

sheep, 37/14. A ewe is said to be 

blissom, i.e. blithe-some, eager. Cf. 

lissom = lithe-some. 
Bobbed, pt. pi. struck, 1 66/29. 
Bodkyn, s. bodkin, 142/6. 
Boget, .r. a budget, wallet, 142/i. 
Boke, book, 3/2, etc. ; bokes, //. 142/4- 
Bolles, s. pi. pods, I46/50. Lit. 

"swellings;" see below. Cf. Du. 

bol, swollen. 
Bolne, v. to swell, 1 28/29 '■> bolneth, 

pr. s. swells, 128/21. Cf. Swed. 

bulna, Dan. bulne, to swell. 
Bolster, s. place of support, 4/51. The 

bed of a timber carriage is called a 

bolster (Wright). 
Bord-clothes, s. pi. table-cloths, H6/45. 
Borde, s. board, 122/2 7. 
Bores, s. pi. boars, 121/9. 
Bottelles, s. pi. bottles, Hl/69. 
Bottes, s. pi. bots, a kind of worms 

troublesome to horses, 102/i. 
Bowes, s. pi. boughs, 122/21. 
Bowes, s. pi. the bent pieces of wood 

(beneath the yoke) which pass round 

the necks of yoked oxen, 5/3. Usually 

called oxbows, as in Tusser. 
Bracer, s. bracer, armour for the arms, 

142/3. See Chaucer, C.T. III. 
Braked, pp. bruised in a brake or 

machine for crushing flax, 146/42. 
Breade-corne, s. corn to be ground to 

bread meal, for making brown bread, 

20/i6. See note to P. Plowman, 

C. ix. 61. 
Breake thy faste, phr. breakfast, 149/8. 
Breaketh, pr. s. breaks in, I2O/3. 
Brede, s. breadth, IIO/3, 132/l8. A.S. 

Brekefaste, s. breakfast, 146/12. 
Bren, v. burn, 27/IO; brenne, 131/2. 

Glossarial Index. 


Brode, adj. broad, 2/14. 

Brodye, adj. ready to lay (as hens), lit. 

brood-y, H6/24. 
Broken -wynded, s. a being broken in 

the wind (said of a horse), 80/1. 
Brome, s. the plant broom, 44/4. 
Brouse, s. small sprigs which the cattle 

eat, 132/3 5 an< i see notes to 3 ^/3> 

126 '9. O. F. broust, a sprig. 
Brouse, v. to browze, eat oS, 131/3- 

Derived from the sb. above. 
Broyse, imp. s. bruise, 59/ 12 ; broysed, 

//• 6 /30- 

Brue, v. to brew, 146/ 15. 

Brumentes, s. pi. inventories, 152/5. 
Roquefort gives : ' Brevememt [ob- 
viously an error for Brevement], etat 
de depense, memoire, agenda, bor- 
dereau.' He also notes breumen, 
used for brevement, briefly. Hence 
brument is for brevement, i.e. short 
list, abstract. 

Brused, pp. bruised, 129/4. 

Bryckle, adj. brittle, 100/8. 

Bryne, s. brine, 44/8. 

Brynke, s. brink, brim, top, H8/3. 

Bryse, imp. s. bruise, 129/3. See Broyse. 

Buddes, s. pi. buds, shoots, 126/ 11. 

Bukler, s. buckler, 142/3. 

Bulder-stones, s. pi. smooth large round 
stones, 15/28. 

Bull, s. harrow-bulk I0/9. >SV<?Harowe- 

Bulleys, j. pi. bullaces, 136/4, 140/i. 

Bunnes, s. pi. dry stalks, 70/9. "Bun, 
a dry stalk;" Wright. Cf. Gael. 
bun, a root, stock, stump ; bunan, 

Burges, pr. s. buds, burgeons, 135/8. 

Burthen, s. crop, 12/21. 

Bussheles, s. pi. bushels, 12/8. 

Busshell-pokes, s. pi. bags or sacks 
holding a bushel, Hl/69. 

Bustardes, s. pi. bustards, 146/29. 

But, prep, except, 122/1 ; but and, 
conj. if, 44/2. 

By, v. buy, 06/5 ; bye, H8/36. 

By and by, phr. exactly, distinctly, in 
order one after the other, 1 26/15 » 
immediately, 42/8. See Wright's 

Byd, v. to bid, invite, 152/i8. 

Byer, s. buyer, 118/6. 

Bygge, *■ bigg, the name of a kind of 
barley, 13 '27. Bigg occurs as the 
name of a kind of barley a.d. 1474-5 > 
see Rogers, Hist. Agric vol. iii. I eel. 
bygg, Dan. byg, barley. 

Byghte, s. (bight), bend, 132/6. 
Byrdes, s. pi. birds, chickens, I46/30. 

Caluary, Calvary, 1 66/32. 

Cambrydge-shyre, 2/27. 

Camborell, s. the hock of an animal, 
IO7/3. Usually cambrel or gambrel. 

Can, pr. s. knows, 52/7 ; pr. pi. 147/ 26. 

Candell-lyghte, s. candle-light, 149/5. 

Candelmas, s. the day of the purifica- 
tion of the Virgin, Feb. 2, 134/22. 

Canker, cancer, a disease of horses, note 
to 83/1 ; p. 141. 

Cannes, s. pi. cans, 141/68. 

Capitayne, s. captain, I67/28. 

Carte-ladder, s. a frame-work behind a 
cart, 0/27. See carte-ladders, 5/30. 

Cart-sadel, s. the small saddle placed 
on a horse in the shafts, 5/27. 

Caryage, s. traffic of carts, 128/12. 

Caryen, s. carrion, 6/34, 58/io. 

Casses, s. pi. the name of a kind of 
apple, 130/4. Roquefort gives casse, 
as meaning an oak. Cf. Low Lat. 
casnus, F. chhte, an oak. 

Caste, v. to swarm, as bees, 122/6 ; 
caste, //. thrown over, as ploughed 
earth, 33/4. 

Castynge, s. casting, 13/i6. See 13/13. 

Cattell, s. cattle, 37/2. 

Cayphas, Caiphas, I66/27. 

Chafed, pp. heated, over-ridden, 85/5. 

Chafynge, pres. pi. growing warm, 88/2. 

Chall-bones, s. pi. jawbones, 86/3. 

Chalks, s. pi. jaws, 70/3. Chall = 
jowl ; see jowl in my Etym. Diet. 

Champyon, s. flat, open, said of 
country, 66/15. (The same as cham- 
paign.) See Tusser's Husbandry. 

Chapmannes, s. gen. merchants, pur- 
chasers, 11 8/4. 

Chapyter, s. chapter, I4I/13 > P?- 
chapyters, Hl/3. 

Charte, s. cart, 19/5. 

Cheape, adj. cheap ; better ckeape, 
cheaper (where cheap was orig. a 
sb.), 5/13. 

Chekyns, s. pi. chickens, 1 46/89. 

Chepeth, pr. s. bargains for, 1 57/27. 

Cheryes, s. pi. cherries, 136/3, H0/i. 

Chesse, s. chess, prol. 15. 

Chesses, s. pi. rows, note to 125/4. A 
chase is " a row " ; see Old Country 
Words, ed. Britten, p. 59. 

Chowe, v. chew, 23/ 11 ; chowynge, 79/7. 

Chrisostome, St. Chrysostom, 155/i6; 
Crysostome, 156/30. 


Glossavial Index. 

Churle hempe, s. male hemp (so called), 
146/ 5 8. 

Chyltume, s. the name of a kind of 
soil, 2/5. See note. We find Ciltern 
as a place-name in the A. S. Chron. 
an. 1009. And see Old Country 
Words, ed. Britten, p. 11. 

Chyne, s. the chine, back, 87/i, II9/4. 

Chynynge, s. cracking, 1 38/30. A. S. 
cinan, to crack. Cf. E. chine, chink. 

Clarkes, s. pi. clerks, scholars, t/15. 

Clayenge, s. putting on the clay, 1 38/33. 

Cleauynge, s. cleft, 138/29. 

Cleese, claws, 64/2; clese, 47/3, 9- 
(Properly ekes.) 

Clerkes, s. pi. scholars, I66/39. 

Cley, s. clay, 2/4. 

Close, s. an inclosure, 66/17 » closes, pi. 

Clothes, s. pi. cloths, H6/79. 

Clothe-makers, s. pi. cloth-makers, 

Clot, s. clod, 15/47 ; clottes, //. I.5/14. 

Clotty, adj. lumpy, full of clods, 1 5/45 , 

Clouen,//. cloven, divided, I06/20. 

Clouen-footed, adj. cloven-footed, 

Clout, pp. clouted, strengthened with 
nails or pieces of iron, 5/ 18. 

Cloute, s. rag, 64/9. 

Cockole, s. corn-cockle, 20/13. 

Cocledrake, an error for code, drake, 
two distinct "words ; code m corn- 
cockle, 2O/3. See Drake ; and see 

Codde, s. cod, 57/5 5 a P 00 ". 29/n 
(where coddes, pi. would be better) ; 
coddes, pi. pods, 20/n. 

Codde, v. bear fruit (said of peas), 
12/38. Cf. peascod = pea-pod ; see 

Coffyns, s. pi. baskets, I66/21. 

Cogges, s. pi. cogs, 134/9. " But the 
cogge-whele in a corne-mylne is a great 
helper, if it be well pycked [clean 
cut], well cogged, and well ranged ; 
sixe ronges and xlviii. cogges are best 
for a great ryuer ; " On Surveying, 
c. 39. Thus the rungs are the divi- 
sions of the smaller, and the cogs of 
the larger wheel, at the circumference. 

Coke, s. another name for the plough- 
ear, 3/5. Perhaps connected with 
Cokers, iron rims round clogs, and 
calkins, cawkins, the parts of a horse- 
shoe turned up and sharpened to pre- 
vent slipping (Wright ; Gloss.) 

Coke, s. a piece of iron used instead of 
a plough-foot, 4/46. See above. 

Cole, s. coal, 1 9/3. 

Coltes-euyll, s. a disease in colts, 101/r. 
See G. Markham ; Husbandry, b. i. 
c. 32. 

Combe, s. comb, 142/5. 

Commons, s. pi. common pasture- 
grounds, 6/10. 

Common weale, s. general advantage, 


Compasse, adj. circular, encompassing, 

Conclusion, in, finally, at last, 132/i8. 

Connynge, s. knowledge, 141/22. 

Content, adj. pleased, 120/1 7. 

Conuenyente, adj. fitting, prol. 14, 
145/15, 146/75. 

Conuocation, s. gathering, 155/3. 

Copyoke, s. part of the harness for a 
waggon, 5/5. Wright gives cop, (1) 
top ... (7) the part of a waggon 
which hangs over the thiller-horse, 
(8) the beam placed between a pair 
of drawing oxen. See Yoke. 

Cordes, cords, a disease in front 
of a horse's fore-legs, 92/i. " Cords, 
or string-halt, is an unnaturall bind- 
ing of the sinews ; " G. Markham, 
Husbandry, b. i. c. 64. 

Come, s. kind of corn, 32/2 ; comes, 
//. grains, 15/4. 

Corser, s. a horse-dealer, II9/15, I2O/4. 
We also find scorser in the same sense. 

Cotes, coats, 151/13. 

Couer, v. cover, a term applied to col- 
lecting sheaves by tens, two of them 
covering the other eight by being laid 
across, 31/2. 

Couerlettes, s. pi. coverlets, 146/8o. 

Countre, s. county, 3/7 ; countreys, s. pi. 
counties, 2/2 ; 35/6 ; countreyes, 
2/28, 3/8. 

Courbe, s. a curb, a kind of lameness 
in horses, 107/1. 

Cowpers, coopers, 134/7- 

Crabtree, s. crabtree, 124/5 ; crabbe- 
tree, 137/n. 

Cranes, cranes, H6/29,. 

Cratches, s. pi. racks, mangers, 70/44. 
F. creche. 

Cratches, s. pi. scratches, a disease in 
a horse's pasterns, 112/i. 

Credence, s. credit, belief, 141/i8. 

Crofote, j. crowfoot, 15/22. A crowfoot 
is a Ranunculus ; see Diet, of E. 

Glossarial Index. 


Croke, crook, bend, 27/12. 

Croked, adj. crooked, 3/39. 

Cromely, adj. liable to crumble, 100/6. 

Croper, s. the crupper, IO0/2. 

Croppe, v. to crop, to cut off the top- 
most shoots or the sprigs, 131/i. 

Croppes, j. //. shoots, sprigs, 44/4. 

Crosse, adj. going across, 5/22. 

Crume, s. crumb, II/23. 

Cudde, s. cud, 17/33- 

Culture, s. coulter, 3/6, 34, 48 ; 63/4. 

Cure, s. endeavour, 146/2. 

Currante, adj. running, moving, 128/4; 
sloping downwards, 128/8. 

Customers, s. pi. customers, II9/13. 

Damme, s. dam, mother (said of a 

mare), 68/75. 
Dampsons, s. pi. damsons, 136/4, 140/i. 
Darbyshyre, 17/21. 
Damolde, s. darnel, 20/4 ; dernolde, 

Dauyd, David, I06/34, I68/17. 
Deceypt, s. deceit, 146/I02. 
Declared, //. explained, 147/28. 
Dee-nettylles, s. pi. purple dead-nettles, 

Defautes, s. pi. defects, faults, I4I/54. 
Departe, v. to part, separate, 145/15. 
Dernolde, s. darnel, 20/21. 
Detters, s. pi. debtors, 170/u. 
Dettes, s. pi. debts, 170/io. 
Deuyded, pp. divided, prol. 18, II/15. 
Dewbolne, s. a disease; lit. "swollen 

with dew," 60/ 1. Bollen = swollen. 

" Dewboln, a swelling, beginning at 

the neather part of the dewlap ; " G. 

Markham, Husbandry, c. 37 (bk. ii.). 
Dewlappe, s. dewlap, 59/io. 
Discretion, s. discernment, wisdom, 

ll/i ; discreation, 146/122. 
Displeasure, s. displeasure, offence, 

Disport, j. sport, 153/n. 
Dockes, s. pi. docks, 20/3, 12. 
Dodder, s. a kind of weed, 20/47. See 

Diet, of E. Plant-names, p. 154 ; 

and doder in Turner's Names of 

Dogfenell, s. stinking chamomile, An- 

themis Cotula, 20/4, 32. See Diet. 

of E. Plant-names. 
Domynation, s. dominion, power, 

54/22, I02/30. 
Dongynge, s. manuring, I3/4. 
Dounged, //. manured, 13/2. 

Dout, imp. s. doubt, I0I/27. 
Douues, s. pi. doves, 17/34. 
Dowles, tholes, pegs, 5/q. "Doul, 

a nail or pin sharpened at each end ; " 

Wright " Tholle, a cart-pynne ; " 

Dradde, //. dreaded, 167 8. 
Drake, s. a kind of darnel, 20/17. Also 

called drawk (Wright) ; and see E. 

Plant-names, p. 159. 
Draughte, s. a team of horse or oxen, 

22/IO ; a manner of drawing, 15 22. 
Dresse, v. to prepare, by cutting off all 

small twigs, 132 '5. 
Drone, s. a drone, I22/49. 
Duetie, s. debt, 1 57/19. 
Dunne, adj. dun, brown, 34/40. 
Dychynge, s. ditching, 124/2. 
Dysheryte, v. to disinherit, 153/24. 
Dyssheborde, s. dish-board, dresser, 

Dystaffe, j. distaff, 1 46/46. 

Ebbe, adj. shallow, 33/4. 

Ecclesiastici, gen. s. of Ecclesiasticus, 

Eddered, pp. bound at the top of the 
stakes, 126/7. See yeather in Ray, 
Gloss. B. 15, p. 75. 

Edderynge, s. the binding at the top of 
stakes used in making hedges, also 
called ether, 126/6 ; edderynges, //. 

Eest, s. east, 133/20. 

Effectually, adv. sincerely, 145/i6. 

Ellore, s. the elder tree, 1*26/2. Usually 
eller, which also means the alder ; see 
E. Plant-names, p. 168. 

Elne, s. an ell, 15/23. 

Encreace, v. increase, 17/ 18. 

Endent, v. indent, 23/15. 

Endure, v. to last, H8/36. 

Enfecte, adj. infected, 08/12. 

Enforme, v. inform, H/29, 155/8 ; en- 
fourme, teach, tell, 134/26. 

Englysshe, English, 166 8. 

Ensample, s. example, 36/9. 

Entente, s. purpose, 7/ll. 

Enterfyre, s. interference of the feet, 
the knocking of one foot against the 
other, 109/i. See the note. " Enter- 
fayring is hewing one leg on another, 
and striking off the skin ;" G. Mark- 
ham, Husbandry, c. 58. 

Ere, conj. before, I0/35 ; er, 3 ( >/2. 

Eschewe, v. to eschew, 146/107, 


Glossarial Index. 

Estate, s. state, condition, 70/28 ; 

estates, pi. wealthy persons, 153/9- 
Euery, adj. every, 1 27/40. 
Ewerie, s. ewery, place for pitchers, 

etc. ; note to 140/8. 
Exaltation of the holye crosse, i.e. 

Sept. 14, 37/i6. 
Expende, v. to spend, 147/13- 
Extende, v. to extend, reach to, 1 47/14. 
Eyen, s. pi. eyes, 48/6 ; eien, 48/8. 

Faculty, s. ability, wealth, 147/i8. 
Facyons, s. pi. fashions, kinds, 2/3. 
Faldynge, s. a kind of frieze, or rough 
cloth, 44/14. See Chaucer, C. T. 

Falowe, v. to plough, I6/3. See below. 
Falowynge, s. ploughing land for the 

first time (for wheat), 4/42. See I6/3. 
Fan, v. to winnow corn, 35/6 ; fande, 

pp. 35/io. 
Farcyon, s. the farcy, a disease of 

horses, in which swellings appear on 

his body, 93/l. Cf. F. farcer, to 

Faste, adv. very near, close, 25/32. 
Fayne, adj. obliged, compelled, 151/14. 
Feitergrasse, s. the name of a kind of 

grass (spelt fettergrass in ed. 1598), 

Felle, v. to fell, 131/i. 
Felow, s. fellow, i.e. neighbouring 

furrow, 9/9. 
Fellyes, s. pi. pieces of wood joined 

together to make the circle of a 

wheel, 5/9. 
Felly-fole, s. filly-foal, filly, 68/52. 
Female hempe, s. wild hemp, I46/57. 
Fenbrede, s. mud-board, or mould- 
board, 3/4, 27. See note to 3/i. 

Fen = mud ; as commonly in M. E. 
Fence, v. to form a fence, 125/5. 
Fenel-sedes, s. pi. fennel seeds, 20/i8. 
Ferny, adj. covered with ferns, 50/ 10. 
Ferre, adv. far, 48/11, 150/6, 164/8. 
Ferthermore, adv. furthermore, besides, 

Fetelockes, s. pi. fetlocks, 99/3. 
Fette, pt. s. brought, 1 66/34. 
Fettred, pp. fastened together, bound, 

Filberdes, s. pi. filberts, 136/3. 
Flaine, pp. flayed, 58/21. See Fley. 
Flanke, s. flank, 85/4. 
Flasshes, s. pi. marshy places, 70/8. 

The usual sense is " pool." 

Flaxen wheate, s. flaxen wheat, a kind 

of wheat, 34/23, 25. 
Flayle, s. flail, 5/33. 
Fley, imp. s. flay, 38/n ; spelt flee, 

Flokes, s. pi. flukes, 56/i6. 
Floures, s. pi. flowers, 156/6. 
Flyntered, pp. said of "small corn 

wrinkled and dried," 34/43. Cf. 

flinders, fragments ; and cf. splintered. 
Flytte, imp. s. remove, 148/15 ; flyte, 

v. I8/3 ; flytteth, pr. s. I8/28. Lit. 

Fodered,//. foddered, fed, 70/40. 
Folden, //. folded, 52/6. 
Foled, pp. foaled, II8/10. 
Foole, s. foal, 68/7, 1 1 ; fools, //. 56/4. 
Fooled, pp. foaled, 68/13. 
Foolynge-tyme, s. foaling time, 68/40. 
For, prep, against, to prevent, I8/33, 

32/8, 35/8, 44/15, 51/9, 52/i, 70/46, 

139/19. (Observe this use. ) 
For nothynge, phr. on no account, 

124/14, 138/io. 
Forecroppe, s. fore-crop, a part of a cow 

or bullock, 57/2. I learn that the 

fore-crop is the upper part of the fore 

quarter of an ox, and lies between 

the neck and the sirloin. ". . -it 

shews he is wel tallowed, and so 

doth the crop behind the shoulders ;" 

Markham, Husbandry, Of Oxen. 
Fore-wedge, s. fore-wedge (before the 

coulter), 4/23. 
Forowe, s. a furrow, 4/6. 
Forther, adj. front, foremost, 92/2. 

" Forther-fete, the forefeet ;" Wright. 
Fortune, v. to chance, happen, 3/i. 

120/17, 124/38, 153/24. 
Fote, plough-foot, 4/i2. See Plough- 

Fote-teame, s. (apparently) the end of 

the drawing-gear which is fastened to 

a plough or harrow, 4/37, 15/i2. See 

Foughten, pp. fought, 169/u. 
Foule, s. an ulcer in a cow's foot, 64/i. 
Freeholders, s. pi. freeholders, 130/22. 
Freteth, pr. s. eats away, 20/7. 
Fretter, s. a corrosive, 43/5. 
Fully martes, s. pi. polecats, 1 46/31. 

Fyfte, adj. num. fifth, 75/3. 
Fylberdes, s. pi. filberts, HO/4. 
Fyled, //. defiled, dirtied, 41/i, 45/4. 
Fyllettes, s. pi. fillets, 76/6. "Filet, 

the fillet of a beast;" Cotgrave. 

Glossarial Index. 


"Fillets, in a horse, are the fore- 
parts of the shoulder next the breast ; " 
Bailey's Diet. vol. i. ed. 1735. 

Fynde, v. to provide with, furnish, 

Fyre-wodde, s. fire-wood, 132/2. 

Fysking, s. fidgeting, roaming about, 
45/2. See examples in my note to 
P. Plowman, C. IO/153. 

Fytches, s. pi. vetches, 20/40, 70/8. 

Garches, s. pi. an error for garthes, i.e. 
hoops, 134/7. S ee Garthe-webbe. 

Garniter, the officer who had care of 
the granary, note to 140/8. 

Garthe-webbe, s. webbing for a girth, 
IO/23. " Garth, a hoop or band ;" 
Wright. See Garches. A girth-web 
is mentioned a.d. 1502 ; see Rogers, 
Hist. Agric. vol. iii. 

Geare, s. gear, implements, 0/2 ; gere, 

Geld, pr. pi. cut too high (said of 
beans), 29/9. 

Gelly, j. jelly, 44/7. 

Gete, //. gotten, taken up, 129/n ; 
gette, gotten from, taken from, 137/7- 
A.S. %eten, pp. 

Gethereth, pr. s. gathers, 28/5. 

Gise, s. guise, fashion, way, 35/8. 

Glaunder, .r. glander, usually in the 
plural, 87/2. See below. 

Glaunders, s. glanders, a disease in the 
glands, 86/1. 

Gleyd, s. kite, H6/31. A.S. glida. 

Glose, s. gloss, comment, 1 68/34. 

Glotony, s. gluttony, 1 52/23. 

Gloues, s. pi. gloves, H2/3. 

Gnappe, v. to bite slightly ; gnappe of, 
rub off with their teeth (said of 
horses), 93/6. The same as kneppe, 
to bite slightly, in Best's Rural 
Economy in Yorkshire (Surtees So- 
ciety) ; mod. E. nip. 

Golds, s. pi. corn marigold, 20/25 ; 
gouldes, 20/4. See Ray, Gloss. B. 
16, p. 83 ; Tusser, note to 39, 21. 

Gore, v. to gore, 70/43. 

Gostely, adj. spiritual, 1 67/38. 

Goten, pp. gotten, 154/9. 

Gouldes, s. pi. corn-marigolds, 2O/4 ; 
golds, 20 25. 

Goute, s. gout, 60/1. 

Gowty, adj. gouty, 56/6. 

Goyng vppon, walking about upon the 
ground, I8/23. 

Graffe, v. to graft, 136/6. 

Graffe, s. a graft, slip, 136/17. 

Graffynge-sawe, saw for grafting, 136/7. 

Grammer-schole, s. grammar-school, 

Grasier, s. grazier, 40/i. 

Grauelynge, s. graveling, caused by 
gravel in a horse's foot, 114/1. 

Grayned, pp. forked at the top, 41/g. 
* ' Grain, a prong of a fork ; Wright. 
(Common). " Grain- staff, a quarter- 
staff with a pair of short tines at the 
end, which they call grains /' Ray, 
Gloss. B. 1 6, p. 84. 

Greatte ; a greatte, by wholesale, 

Gregorye, St Gregory, 162/12 ; Gre- 
gory, 155/24, 161/15, 165/26, 167/6. 

Grese, v. to grease, 40/24. 

Greued, pp. grieved, 147/15. 

Gristell, s. gristle, 89/2. 

Grombalde-brydge, Grimbald Bridge, 
near Knaresborough, 79/ 10. 

Grosse sale, wholesale, 36/25. 

Grote, j. groat, 20/ 15. 

Gurthe, s. girth, 142/5. 

Gynre, s. a disease of cattle, probably 
giddiness, 70/33. Cf. F. girer, to 

Gyse, s. guise, way, custom, 133/i. 

Hachet, s. hatchet, 127/2. 

Hades, s. pi. strips of greensward, 6/17. 
" Hade, a ridge of land, a small piece 
of greensward at the end of arable 
land;" Wright. 

Half-throne, v. to cover sheaves in 
some particular manner, 3I/3. It is 
believed to be the same as the Shrop- 
shire hackle, which is to put four 
sheaves of wheat into a shock, and 
then to place another sheaf (upright) 
with the ears downwards, on the top. 
This agrees with covering except in 
the use of 4 sheaves for 8. 

Halomshyre, Hallamshire (in which is 
Sheffield), 17/21. 

Halte, v. to go lamely, 98/5. 

Halter, s. halter, 142/2. 

Halue, s. half, 127/4- 

Hamper, s. hamper, basket, H/23. 

Hampole, Richardus de, I65/39. 

Handbyll, s. small bill-hook, 127/2. 

Handel, v. to handle, 4O/24. 

Handsome, adj. handy, convenient, 

i 5 6 

Glossarial Index. 

Harde, pp. heard, I64/30. 

Harde by, phr. close, 129/4. 

Harowe-bulles, s. pi. chief pieces of 
timber composing an ox-harrow, 15/6. 

Harovved, pp. harrowed, 15/2. 

Harowe-tyndes, s. pi. tines or prongs 
of a harrow, 15/ 10. 

Hasell, s. hazel, 24/i6, 124/5. 

Hassell, adj. stiff, said of a soil ; see 
it partially denned in note to 2/6. 
" Hazle, stiff, as clay; Essex." — 
Wright. " A haisel mould, which 
I count to be one of the best wealdish 
moulds, being a compound mould, 
and very good for marie." — G. 
Markham, Inrichment of the Weald, 
1649, p. 9. 

Hasty, adj. early, 1 2/39. 

Hatched, put for hatchet, note to 46/3. 
" Brains of a hatchet," a term for 
the oily substance obtained by burn- 
ing linen on the head of a hatchet. 

Hatte, s. hat, 142/2. 

Haue, v. take, 58/12. 

Hawdod, s. corn bluebottle, Centaurea 
Cyanus, 20/28 ; haudoddes, pi. 2O/4. 
Cf. hardewes, a name for the wild 
succory (Cichorium Intybus) in 
Turner's Names of Herbes. 

Hawe, j. an excrescence in the eye of 
a horse, 89/i. 

Hearbgrace, s. herb-grace, rue, note to 

Heare, s. hair, 64/5, ^8/4 ; heares, pi. 
47/5, "• 

Hearynges, s. pi. herrings, 36/iO. 

Hecheled, pp. heckled, combed, 1 46/42. 

Hedge-rote, s. hedge-root, stump, 

Hedgyngebyll, s. bill for hedging, 5/32. 

Heed, s. head, 47/4, 102/3- 

Heed, pr. s. subj. 2 p. behead, cut off 
the top, crop, 132/9; heeded, pp. 

Heeth-grounde, s. ground covered with 
heather, 2/7. 

Hele-wedge, s. heel-wedge (behind the 
coulter), 4/23. 

Helpe, v. mend, cure, 58/2. 

Herdman, s. herdsman, 6/10 ; herde- 
man, 123/15. 

Heringes, s. pi. herrings, 36/i2. 

Herode, Herod, I66/27. 

Hert, s. heart, middle, IOO/4 ; herte, 

Hey, s. hay, 23/4, 66/14 ; heye, 1 46/85. 

Hey-cockes, s. pi. haycocks, 25/15. 

Hey-rope, s. hay rope, 64/5. 

His, pr. gen. its, 9/8. 

Hode, s. hood, 142/2. 

Hogges, s. pi. hogs, I2I/9. 

Hole, adj. whole, healthy, H9/13. 

Hole-footed, adj. whole-footed, web- 
footed, H6/26. 

Holer, adj. compar. more whole ; 
healthier, 149/ 13. 

Hole-straw wheat, wheat with a whole 
or solid straw, note to 34/43. 

Holmes, s. pi. put for homes = hames, 
5/25,15/41. See Hombers. 

Holpen, pp. helped, cured, 61/6, 82/2. 

Holsome, adj. wholesome, 25/i8. 

Holy bread, s. ordinary leavened bread 
cut into small pieces, blessed, and 
given to the people, H/18. See 
note to P. Plowman, C. xvi. 210. 

Holye, s. holly, 124/5. 

Holyrode-day, the day of the holy 
cross, Sept. 14 (see 17/i6), 134/21. 
See Phillips' Diet. ed. 1706. 

Hombers, s. pi. horse-collars, 5/24, 
15/41. Also called hamberwes, ham- 
boroughs ; from hame, one of the 
bent pieces of wood to which the 
trace is fastened, and A.S. beorgati, 
to protect. Lit. 'hame-protectors.' 

Honger, s. hunger, 30/14. 

Hopper, s. a seed-basket, IO/22, 25 ; 
34/IO. M.E. hoper (P. Plowman). 

Home, s. horn, 142/3. 

Horse, s. gen. horse's, 82/i, 91/r. 

Horse-harowes, s. pi. harrows drawn 
by horses, 15/15. 

Horse-leche, s. horse-doctor, 120/6. 

Horse-mayster, s. horse-master, 120/i. 

Houe, s. hoof, 78/6, 98/2. 

Hoystynge, s. coughing, 59/3. ' Hoist, 
a cough ; East. ' — Wright. 

Hucbone, s. hip-bone, 57/3. More 
commonly huckle. 

Hurdes, s. pi. hards, coarse flax, H6/39. 

Hurdels, s. pi. hurdles, I8/35. 

Husbandes, s. pi. husbandmen, 3/i. 

Huske, s. husk, 14/12. 

Huswife, s. housewife, 148/i. 

Hyer, higher, prol. 33. 

Hynder, adj. latter, 148/1 1. 

lagged, adj. jagged, 20/26. 
James, St., 169/12. 
Ielly, s. jelly, 68/23. 
Ieoperdy, s. jeopardy, peril, 6/13, 

Glossarial Index. 


Iherome, St. Jerome, 155/i, I6I/20; 
Jerome, I68/7. 

In lyke, alike, 25/6. 

In regarde, phr. for his part, lit. ac- 
cording to his estimation, 153 6. 

Inam, applied to wheat, note to 9/13. 
Cf. " Innom barley, barley sown the 
second crop after the ground is fal- 
lowed; North." — Ray, Gloss. B. 15, 
p. 50. 

Infecte, infected, I64/29. 

Infydeles, s. pi. infidels, I66/45. 

Inke, s. ink, 142/4. 

Intend, pr. pi. intend, 148/i. 

Inuentorvs, s. pi. inventories, 151/2. 

lob, Job, 156/7. 

Iohan, John, 1 60/34. 

Isodorus, St. Isidore, 164/i8 ; I60/37, 
49; I69/33; Isodore, 165/ 29. 

Judas, 1 66/2 5. 

Iudges, s. pi. castles (in chess), prol. 20. 

Kedlokes, s. pi. charlock, Sinapis ar- 
vensis, IO/13. 2O/3, 9. Also called 
cadlock, cadlick, chadlock, chedlock, 
carlock, charlock, callock, etc. 

Kelles, s. pi. cases of maggots, I8/10; 
gossamer- threads, 54/22. "/Cells, 
cones of silkworms ; hell, a film over 
the eyes ;" Wright. The usual sense 
is 'caul.' 

Kente, Kent, 2/15. 

Kerchef, s. kerchief, handkerchief, 

Keys, s. pi. part of a cart, 5/22. 

Knolles, s. pi. knolls, mounds, lumps, 

Knowen, pp. known, 8/2. 

Knyfe, s. knife, 142/6. 

Knytte, pp. joined together as a swarm 
of bees, 122/9, 22 ; knytte, v. to 
join, 122/io. 

Kydde, v. to bind up faggots in bundles, 
131/7, 132 /7- See below. 

Kyddes, s. pi. faggots, 0/29. "Kydde, 
a fagotte ;" Palsgrave. 

Kyd-wodde, s. faggot- wood, 134/20. 

Kye, s. pi. cows, 56/7, H6/10. A. S. 
cy, pi. of ai. 

Kylde, pp. killed, 103 6. 

Kynde, s. nature, 128/23. 

Kyrfe, s. incision, 136/ 10. " Kerf, an 
incision ;" Wright. Derived from 
A.S. ceorfan, to carve, to cut. Spelt 
kerfe in Ray, Gloss. B. 16, p. 85. 

Kyrtels, kirtles, skirts, 151/1 6. 

Lampas, s. an excrescence of flesh 
above the teeth in horses, which often 
prevents their eating, 8I/1. " Hava 
de bestias, the lampas, a disease in the 
mouth of beasts, when such long 
barbies grow in their mouthes, that 
they cannot well feed ;" Minsheu, 
Spanish Diet. 

Landes, s. pi. 5/4. Evidently some 
part of the gear for ploughing, but 
I can find no such word. Perhaps 
an error for bandes, i.e. bands. Mr. 
Peacock, in his Glossary of Manley 
Words, has — ' ' Lanes, Lains, an 
iron ring at the end of the beam of 
a plough to which the horses are 
yoked." Perhaps this is it. 

Landes, s. gen. field's, 2/17 ; landes, 
s. pi. ridges, 13/7- 

Lankesshyre, Lancashire, 2/26. 

Lanses, s. pi. shoots, 138/1. 

Lathe-legged, //. slender-legged, 78/4. 

Lathes, s. pi. laths. 1 5 9. 

Laude, s. praise, 163/1, I67/17. 

Lazare, Lazarus, 1 66/22, 

Ledde, pp. carried, 28/i2. 

Ledder, s. leather, IO/23. 

Lees, s. pi. leas, pastures, 148/i8. 

Leisshe, s. leash, 142/3. 

Lene, v. to lean, 1 24/35. 

Lenger, adj. conipar. longer, 3/38, 
3/55, 70/13; adv. 67/4, 128 32. 

Lente-corne, s. Lent corn, spring corn, 

Let hym blode, bleed him, 48/7. 

Let, v. hinder, 24/19 : l ette » pr- pi- 
82/2, 164/1. 

Lette, s. hindrance, 135/6. 

Leue, v. leave off, 4I/15. 

Leue, s. leave, 143/7. 

Leuse, v. to loosen, 126/i6, 129/IO. 

Ley, v. to lay, lay eggs, 146/23. 

Leycestershyre, 2 '26. 

Leye-hey, s. meadow hay, 25 34. 

Leys, pasture-grounds, 6/17, 8/5. 

Leysshe, s. leash, 10 25. 

Like, pr. pi. thrive, 53 9. 

Linsede, s. linseed, 146/ 53. 

Lockes, s. pi. pieces torn off a fleece, 

Lode, v. load, carry, 32/2. 

Lodynge, s. loading, 22/n. 

Loken, pp. locked or closed up, 146 53. 
See note. 

Lollers, lollards, I66/45. 

Long-eare, s. long-ear, a kind of barley, 

i 5 8 

Glossarial Index. 

Longe-rained, pp. long in the reins, 

Longe-soughte, s. lung disease, 59/2. 

A.S- suht, disease (Grein). 
Loode, v. to carte, 14 6/87. 
Loppe, v. to lop, 132/i. 
Lose, adj. loose, 27/4. 
Louyngely, adv. lovingly, kindly, 

Lowe-brawned, pp. strong in the lower 

muscles, 75/2. 
Lower, adj. compar. lower, 125/5- 
Lowsy, adj. full of lice, I17/i. 
Luke-warme, adj. lukewarm, tepid, 

Lye, s. urine, note to 44/8. Cf. I Hen. 

IV. ii. 1. 23. O.F. lie, lees. 
Lyfte, adj. left, 28/4. 
Lyke, v. to thrive, 57/io, 123/14, 140/8. 
Lyncoln, 2/27. 

Lyne, s. measuring line, 1 24/28. 
Lyngel, s. a shoemaker's thread, 142/6. 

" Lyngel/, that souters sowe with, 

/ignier ;" Palsgrave. 
Lyn-pinnes, s. p/. linch-pins, 5/19. 

See Linchpin in my Etym. Diet. 
Lytter, s. litter, straw for a horse's 

bed, IOO/3. 
Lyuer, s. liver, 5 5/15. 

Malander, s. a sore place on the inside 

of the fore-leg of" a horse, 94/i. 

" Malandres, the malanders, a horses 

disease;" Cotgrave. " Malendre," 

the same. 
Male, s. bag, pack, portmanteau, 142/2. 
Mall, s. a mallet or club, 126/14; 

malles, pi. 15/46. 
Mallet, s. mallet, wooden hammer, 

Malte, s. malt, I46/14. ' 
Mane, s. a piece of grass left unmown, 

Maple, s. maple, I26/3. 
Marke, St. Mark, 170/3. 
Marie, s. rich earth used as manure, 

2/6 ; a blue marble-like earth, note 

to I6/29-35. 
Marley, s. marl, 138/26. See above. 
Marre, v. mar, spoil, 7O/50. 
Marreis, adj. marsh, 5/15 ; marreys, 

Marreys. s. marsh, 54/13. 
Martok, Martock (Somersetshire), 27/ 1 7. 
Martilmas, Martinmas, St. Martin's 

day, Nov. II, 134/21. 

Mathes, s. pi. maggots, 18/8, 45/i. 

"Cimex, maftu;" Wright's Vocab. i. 

Mathes, s. pi. stinking chamomile, 

corn chamomile, Anthemis Cotu/a, 

2O/4. Called stynkynge maydweede 

in Turner's Names of Herbes. 
Matter, s. pus in a sore, 87/3. 
Mattockes, s. pi. mattocks, tools to 

dig up roots and weeds, 8/20. See 

Mawe, s. the stomach, 102/2. 
May, pr. s. can, is able, 66/20. 
Mayn whyte, principally white, 68/70. 
Meane, adj. middling, ordinary, 2/6, 

124/19 > neither very moist nor very 

dry, 70/27. 
Meane, s. means, way, 166, rubric ; 

167, rubric. 
Measure, s. measure, moderation, 

Meete, imp. s. measure, 146/i6. 
Medle, v. to mix, 17/ 16 ; medled, pp. 

2/6, 34/21, 43/1. _ 
Melch kye, s. pi milch cows, 70/21. 
Mete, adj. even, 138/23. 
Metelye, adv. meetly, 12/7- 
Middes, j. midst, 48/7. 
Mo, adj. compar. more (in number), 

58/34; 141/50. A.S. md. See^Aoo. 
Moche, adj. large, 47/3, I 5- 
Moderate, v. lessen, 44/26. 
Molde, s. mould, 9/6 ; moldes, pi. 

pieces of earth, 45/7. 
Molten,//, melted, 43/4, 45 /7- 
Moneth, s. month, 93/8. 
Moo, adj. compar. more (in number), 

40/8, 121/20. See Mo. 
Moralytes, s. pi. moral principles, prol. 

More, adj. compar. greater, 127/4. 
More harder, adj. compar. harder, 

More hyer, adj. compar. higher, 

Morfounde, s. a disease in a horse's 

feet, occasioned by its taking cold, 

lOO/i. " Se morfondre, to take cold, 

catch cold ;" Cotgrave. 
Morteys, s. mortise, 3/13, 20, 39. (It 

is a hole in a piece of wood made to 

receive something that can be tightly 

wedged up in it.) 
Mosse, s. moss, 131/3. 
Mouldywarpe-hilles, s. pi. mole-hills, 

Mountenance, s. amount, 68/31. 

Glossarial Index. 


Mournynge, j. a disease appearing 
either in the tongue or back of a 
horse, apparently cancer, 83/i, C7/i, 
II9/4. See mourrues, mourue in 

Mo wen, adj. mown, 70/32. 

Mowes, s. pi. stacks, heaps, 32/3. 

Mucke, s. manure, 17/2. 

Mucke, v. to manure, 17/5- 

Muck-wayne. s. manure-cart, 146/86. 

Muldes, s. pi. pieces of mould or earth, 
41/3, 45 /8, 124/23. 

Murren, s. murrain, 57/13. 

Murtheryng, s. murdering, killing, 51/6. 

Musell, s. muzzle, note to 39/g. 

Myldewe-grass, s. mildew-grass, 54/17. 

Myldewes, s. pi. mildews, 44/24. 

Myllettes, s. pi. a disease behind the 
fetlocks of horses, llO/i. 

Mynystratours, s. pi. ministers, 165/5. 

Nache, s. the point of the rump, 57/3. 
See Old Country Words, ed. Britten, 
p. 105. "A big nach, round and 
knotty," said of an ox ; G. Mark- 
ham, Husbandry, Of Oxen. 

Narowe, adj. narrow, close, difficult, 

Nathes, s. pi. naves of a wheel, 5/9. 

Xauyll, s. navel, 57/6. 

Nauylgall, s. navel-gall, described as a 
kind of sore on a horse's back, IO0/1. 

Necessaryest, adj. superl. most neces- 
sary, I/4. (Used with most preced- 

Nede, s. need, necessity, 44/ 16. 

Nedle, s. needle, 142/5. 

Nether, adj. compar. lower, 5/22, 31/7. 

Norfolke, 2/27. 

Nose-thrilles, s. pi. nostrils, 84/2 ; 
nosethrylles, 75/3 ; sing, nosethryll, 

Nother, for other ; an nother, another, 

Nourysshe, v. nourish, I3O/24. 

Nowe-a-dayes, adv. nowadays, 153/5- 

Nycked,/^. notched, 21/4. 

Nyckes, s. pi. notches, 4/38, 1 22/41. 

Occupy, v. use, 1/5 ; occupie, 148/io ; 

occupied, pp. used, I0/36. 
Of, adv. off, away from it, 136/12 ; off, 

27/7, 139/19. 
Of, prep, during, 6/13. 
Oke, j. oak, I0/7, 24/10. 

Oke-settes, s. pi. young plants or cut- 
tings of oak, 124/8. 

Oke-water, s. oak-water, apparently 
water in which oak-galls have been 
steeped, 87/2. 

Olde, adj. old ; the olde of the mone, 
at full moon, 12/37. 

Ones, adv. once, 147/28. 

Or, adv. ere, before, 0/1, 119/8. 

Oratory, 1 60/47. 

Orchyarde, s. orchard, I22/3. 

Order, v. determine, 3/41. 

Ordeyne, v. to order, send, 146/14. 

Osyerde, s. osier, 130/12. 

Otemele, s. oatmeal, 14/io. 

Otes, s. pi. oats, 13/26, 14/i. 

Other whyle, adv. sometimes, occa- 
sionally, 4/i6, 48/4, 6O/5. 

Ouer, adj. upper, 5/22, 91/2, 133/14. 

Ouerlay, v. cover by laying over, 127/41 • 

Ouermoste, adj. superl. uppermost, 

Ouerplus, s. overplus, surplus, 148/8. 

Ouer-rechynge, s. overstepping, 113/1. 

Ouerthwarte, adv. across, sideways, 
7/21, 112/3, 131/14- 

Oughte, pt. s. owed, 146/io6. 

Outragious, adj. extravagant, 150/6. 

Oxe-bowes, s. pi. bent pieces of wood 
passing round the necks of oxen, and 
fastened to the yoke, 5/44. 

Oygrane wheate, white wheat, note to 

Oyse, v. to ooze, 111/2. 

Pale, s. paling, 40/3. 

Paper, s. paper, H2/4. 

Parcels, s. pi. parts, divisions, 68/63. 

Parchment, s. parchment, H2/4. 

Pare, v. to pare, cut, 1 24/30, 136/i6; 
pared,//. 136/21. 

Partener, s. partner, 134/27, 3°- 

Paryng, s. paring, IOO/12. 

Paste, adv. past, over, 13/15. 

Pasturnes, s. pi. pasterns, 11 2/3. 

Pastyme, s. pastime, something to pass 
or fill up leisure time, 146/47. 

Pater-noster, I66/12. 

Paule, St. Paul, 153/28, 158/6, 161/8, 
1 69/29. 

Payle, s. pail, 56/7. 

Payre, v. to impair, make worse, 97/3 5 
payreth, pr. s. spoils, 4/26. 

Pease, peas, IO/3, 8. Properly a singu- 
lar form. 

Peeke countreye, country round the 
Peak, in Derbyshire, 39/i6. 


Glossarial Index. 

Peeke-wheate, s. peek-wheat, a kind 
of poor wheat, 34/41. Cf. peeked, thin. 

Pees, s. pease, IO/14. See Pease. 

Pees-stubble, s. pea-stubble, 34/5. 

Pelte-rotte, s. rot in the fleece, 54/33. 

Penknyfe, s. penknife, H2/5. 

Penne, s. pen, H2/4. 

Pens, s. pi. pence, 54/io. 

Peny, s. penny, 36/n. 

Peny-grasse, s. a kind of grasse that 
never bears a flower, 54/8. It must 
therefore be distinct from Rhinanthus 
Crista-galli, also called penny-grass 
by some ; see Old Country Words, 
ed. Britten, p. 37. 

Perche, s. perch, 30^ sq. yards, I2/5. 

Perfyte, adj. perfect, Hl/5. 

Perseth, pr. s. pierceth, 141/8. 

Peruse, v. to go through with, continue, 
131/15 5 im P- s - 124/35 5 examine, 
4O/23 ; survey, 30/7. 

Perysshynge, s. piercing, 62/17. See 
the note. 

Peter, St., 155/13. 

Peyhenne, s. peahen, 14 6/28. 

Peynes, s. pains ; a disease in a horse's 
fetlocks, lll/i. 

Pikstaues, s. pi. pikestaves (but here 
used, apparently, of a part of a cart, 
possibly the supports of the shafts), 

Pill, v. to peel, note to 55/i6. 

Plasshed, //. plashed, 127/19. See 

Plasshynge, s. plashing, 124/2. To 
plash is to lower and close up a 
broad-spread hedge, by partially 
cutting off the branches, and entwin- 
ing them with those left upright. 

Playster, s. plaister, 164/22. 

Pleched, pp. pleached, plashed, 127/22. 
See Plasshynge. 

Pleytes, s. pi. plaits, folds, 151/17. 

Ploughe-beame, s. plough-beam, 3/2, 9. 
See note to 3/i. 

Ploughe-eare, s. plough-ear, 3/5, 42 ; 
4/34. See note to 3/i. 

Ploughe-fote, s. plough-foot, 3/5, 38. 
See note to 3/i. 

Plough-geare, s. instruments requisite 
for ploughing, 5/45. 

Ploughehedde, s. the same as the share- 
beam, 2/io. See Sharbeame. 

Ploughe-mal, s. plough-hammer or mal- 
let, 3/6. See note to 3/i. 

Ploughe-shethe, s. plough-sheath, 2/3. 
See note to 3/i. 

Plough-stylte, *. the right-hand handle 

of a plough, 3/21. See note to 3/i. 
Ploughetayle, s. the left-hand and 

longer handle of the plough, 2/23 ; 

3/15, 19. 
Ploughe-yren, s. plough-iron, iron part 

of a plough (share and coulter), 5/2 ; 

ploughe-yrons, pi. 2/19. 
Plowe, v. plough, 6/14. 
Plowes, s. pi. ploughs, 2/r. 
Plummes, s. pi. plums, 136/4, 140/i. 
Plyenge, pres. pi. bending, 24/14. 
Pockes, pocks, pustules, a disease 

in sheep, 49/i. 
Pole, 12/5. See Perche. 
Polerd wheat, s. coarse wheat, pollard 

wheat, 34/23. So called because it 

has no awns : to poll is to clip, etc. 

See Pollard. 
Poleyn, s. pi. poultry, fowls, 146/21. 
Pollard, short-horned, said of a ram, 

note to 37/6. See Polerd. 
Pommes, pumice, 142/4 '> pomis, 100/6. 
Ponch, s. punch, 139/9. 
Pondre, v. to ponder, consider, 153/28. 
Poores, s. pi. pores, fO/26. 
Popeler, s. poplar, 130/5. 
Potte, s. pot ; good for the potte, good 

for boiling, 146/35. 
Pottell, s. a pottle, two quarts, 44/8. 
Potycarye, s. an apothecary, 120/8. 
Pouertee, s. poverty, 147/15. 
Pourpose, v. purpose, intend, 27/19. 
Poynte, s. a tagged lace, 142/5. 
Practyue, s. practice, 4/29 ; practiue, 

Predication, s. preaching, 154/19. 
Prefixe, v. to fix beforehand, 157/7- 
Processe, s. relation, story, tale, 2/29, 

120/13 ; in processe, in course of 

time, 127/8. 
Profe, s. proof, I6I/24. 
Proferre, v. to put into, insert, 138/13. 
Profytablest, adj. superl. most profit- 
able, 37/5. 
Promesse, s. promise, 15 7/ 16, 21. 
Propertie, s. method, 12/ 17. 
Prouander, s. ' provender, 23/n. 
Proued, pp. tried, 141/22, 23. 
Prycke-eared, pp. with sharply pointed 

erect ears, 77/i. Cf. the phr. 'to 

prick up one's ears.' 
Pulled,//, gathered, 146/41. 
Pursy, s. short-windedness (in a horse), 

84/i. See Pursy in my Etym. Diet. 
Pursynes, s. short-windedness, 87/4. 
Put, v. push, 7O/42. 

Glossarial Index. 


Pygges, s. pi. pigs, H6/89. 

Pyke, v. pick, 35 3. 

Pykforke, s. pitchfork, 5/6, 20/4. 

Pyl, v. to peel, 134/23 '■> im P- * 134/n. 
&«? Pill. 

Pylate, Pilate, 1 66/26. 

Pyllynge, j. strip of bark, 136/22. 

Pymples, s. pi. pimples, 49/2, 93/3. 

Pyn-awgur, s. a boring-tool for making 
holes for pins or pegs, probably a 
gimlet as distinguished from a rest- 
awgur, 5/32. 

Pynder, s. the petty officer of a manor, 
whose duty it was to impound all 
strange cattle straying on the com- 
mon, 148/25, 39- 

Pynfolde, s. pound, 148/26. 

Pynte, s. pint, 08/31. 

Pypes, s. pi. hollow stalks, "O/9. 

Pyrre-stocke, s. a pear-stock, 137/IO. 

Pysell, s. pizzle, 56/7. 

Pytchers, s. pi. pitchers, 141/68. 

Quicke, adj. alive ; waxe quicke, be- 
come alive, 91/5. 

Quikens, s. pi. live things, 55/i6. 

Quiteth, pr. s. requites, repays, 14/ 13. 

Quyche, s. couch-grass, 14/ 17. 

Quyche-hey, s. hay of couch-grass, 

Quycke, adj. alive, IO2/4. 

Quycke, s. quicke, sensitive part, 115/2. 

Quycke-sande, s. quicksand, 1 28/24. 

Quyckeset, v. make quickset hedges, 
123 S. 

Quycksettes, s. pi. quickset hedges, 

Rache, s. a streak or mark on a horse's 
forehead (misprinted rathe in ed. 
1534), 68/64. See the spelling ratch 
in the note to the line. ' Raitch, a 
white line in a horse's face ; Yorksh.' 
— Wright. See Rase. 

Radel-marke, s. a mark made on sheep 
with ruddle, or red ochre, 02/5. 

Raine, s. gutter, water-course, furrow 
between ridges, 13/7 ; rayne, 7/20. 
See Rean in Wright, and below. 

Ranke, adj. rank, strong, 10/ 10, 12/20; 
fertile, U/29. 

Ranknes, s. abundance, repletion,101/i. 

Rapes, s. pi. turnips, 2O/9. O. F. 
rabe, rave, ' a rape or turnep '; Cot- 

Rase, s. streak, mark, 73/i. See Rache. 

Ratch. See Rache. 

Rate, j. rate, 121/12. 

Rathe, s. an error, (in ed. 1534) for 
rache, 68/64. ■£» Rache. 

Rather, adv. compar. sooner, quicker, 
easier, 46/3, 66/22, 133/5. 

Rathes, s. pi. frames of wood placed on 
a cart to make it broader, for carry- 
ing hay, 5/22. (Also called raves.) 

Raunsome, s. ransom, 148/28. 

Raye, pr. s. subj. have diarrhoea, 41/i. 
" I beray, I fyle ones clothes with 
spottes of myer, properly aboute the 
skyrtes, ie crotte :" Palsgrave. 

Rayment, s. raiment, apparel, I0I/9. 

Rayne, furrow, 7/20. See Raine. 

Reane, s. gutter ; furrow between the 
ridges of ploughed land to take off 
the water, 21/15 ; 33/6, 8, 10. See 

Recheles, adj. reckless, 7/8. 

Red wheate, a kind of wheat, 34/35. 

Rede, s. reed, 27/21. 

Reduce, v. bring back, turn, 7/l5- 

Redy, adj. dressed, 146/8. See note. 

Reed, pp. shaken in a sieve, so that 
the chaff collects to one place, 36/3. 
"Ree, to pass corn through a sieve for 
the purpose of cleaning it from chaff ;" 
Wright, See E.D.S. Gloss. B. 16, 
p. 89. 

Reed, adj. red, 49/i, 55/2, IO2/3. 

Reedwaxe, s. red wax, sealing-wax, 

Regum primo, in the first Book of 
Kings (Samuel), 1 65/52. 

Reke, s. rick, 29/13, 32 /5- A.S. hredc. 

Relent, v. to melt, 44/ 16. 

Remytte, v. to leave, 7/14 ; pr. s. I p. 
I pass over, prol. 27. See note. 

Ren ryot, phr. to run riot, I48/38. 

Renne, v. to run, 138/20 ; renneth, 
pr. s. runs, 54/ 11 ; rennynge, pres. 
pi. running, 44/6. 

Rennynge, s. running, 85/2. 

Reparation, s. repair, 5/8. 

Repes, s. pi. handfuls (of corn, also of 
beans, etc.), 29/4, 7. " Repe, a 
handful of corn ;" Wright. Allied 
to E. reap. 

Repeyled, pp. rippled, I46/41. 

Reproued, //. reprobate, 144/8. 

Rere, v. rear, rise, 16/6. 

Reson, s. reason ; of reson, of course, 

Rest, s. a plough-rest, 3/4, 22. See 
note to 3/i. 

1 62 

Glossarial Index. 

Rest-awgur, s. perhaps a boring-tool, 
the head of which rests against a 
support (?), 5/33. Or, more likely, 
for wrest-augur, one which resembles 
a centre-bit, and is wrested round (?). 

Rest-balke, pr. s. subj. 2 p. make a 
rest-balk, I6/31. See below. 

Reste-balkes, s. pi. ridges of land be- 
tween furrows, 4/4. 

Retayle, imp. s. sell by retail, 134/i. 

Rideled, pp. sifted, 146/51. 

Ridge-bone, s. back -bone, 6O/12. 

Ripeled, //. rippled, stripped, 1 46/51. 

Role, v. roll, 15/50. 

Ronges, s. pi. steps of ladders, rungs, 

Ronne, v. to run, 41/14. (Perhaps a 
misprint for renne, q.v.) 

Rote, s. root, 127/7 > rotes > P l - 91 /5» 

Rounde, adj. in a rounded form, 33/i6. 

Rowme, s. room, 26/8, 131/io. 

Ruddiest, a better reading jor rudeste ; 
see note to 34/38. See Rudeste. 

Ruddyer, adj. compar. redder, 48/n. 

Rudeste, adj. sup. ruddiest, reddest, 
34/38. See Ruddiest. 

Rut, s. rutting, 37/l7- 

Ry, s. rye, 8/14. 

Rychesse, s. riches, 156/1. 

Rydge, s. ridge, 7/20. See Rygge. 

Rygge, s. ridge ; holowe rygge, the 
hollow between two ridges, 17/1 1 • 

Rygge, v. ridge, 9/7 ; rygged, pp. 
ridged, in ridges, 13/2. 

Ryggynge. s - ridging, 13/3. 

Ryghtuousenes, s. justice, 1 57/36. 

Ryghtwysly, adv. righteously, 1 56/32. 

Ryngbone, s. a disease on a horse's 
foot, above the hoof, 9 8/1. 

Rysen-vppon, s. a disease ; lit. ' risen 
upon,' swollen up, 6I/1. 

Ryppon, Ripon, 17/22, 79/n. 

Sacke, s. sack, IO/26. 

Sadelclothe, s. saddlecloth, 142/2. 

Sacrament, s. sacrament, 145/7. 

Salesman, s. seller, 1 34/29. 

Salomon, Solomon, 157/8, I69/14, 31. 

Salue, v. salve, anoint, I8/35. 

Sandiuer, s. scoria of glass, note to 46/3. 
' ' Suin de verre, sandever, the fatty 
substance floating on glasse when it 
is red-hot in the furnace, and which 
being cold is as hard as stone, yet 
brittle and easily broken ; " Cotgrave. 

Sandy, adj. sandy (said of colour), 

Sappe-tyme, s. sap-time, 133/22. 
Sauegarde, s. safeguard, I8/32, 123/37 ; 

saue-garde, 35/8. 
Scab, s. sore place, sore, 42/5 > scabbe 

(in horses), 11 6/2. 
Scabbed, afflicted with scab, 18/8, 42/i. 
Scaffolde, s. support of a rick, to keep 

it off the ground, 32/6. 
Scape, 2 pr. s. subj. escape, H8/43. 
Scarce, adj. sparing, stingy, I0O/2. 
Scaresdale, Scardale, a hundred of 

Derbyshire, 17/21. 
Sclatte, s. slate, 122/38. 
Scote, s. privy part of a colt, 101/2. 

See colt-evil, explained in Markham's 

Husbandry, b. i. c. 32. Cf. sheath in 

Scyences, s. pl. scions, suckers, 140/2. 

" Sciens of cherry-trees ;" W. Law- 
son, Orchard and Garden, 1648, p. 

122. See note. 
Seame, used as equivalent to a quarter 

(of beans), note to 12/13. 
Sede-forowe, s. seed-furrow, 4/37. 
Selander, s. a disease in the bend of a 

horse's leg, 95/ 1. 
Selden, adv. seldom, 54/29. 
Semeth, v. impers. appears ; me semeth, 

it appears to me, 34/i2. 
Seneca, I6I/9. 
Senewes, s. pl. sinews, 75/3. 
Sere, imp. s. sear, 63/7. 
Serewe, s. a disease in a horse's leg, on 

the inner side, 96/i. 
Serue, v. to feed animals, 146/20. 
Sethe, v. boil, 44/5 '■> im P- s - 55/i8. 
Sette, v. to plant, 129/i ; pp. set, 

Settes, pl. slips set in the ground to 

grow, cuttings, 124/ 10. 
Seuer, v. sever, separate, 53/2. 
Seueral, adj. several, separate, 6/6. 
Seueraltye, in, phr. separately, 123/28. 
Shaken, adj. full of cracks in the wood, 

132/1 1. 
Shakyll, s. shackle, 15/13. 
Shap, s. privy part of a mare, 68/22. 
Sharbeame, s. the wooden frame to 

which the share of a plough is fixed, 

2/io ; sharebeame, 3/3. 
Share, s. ploughshare, 3/6. 
Share-hogges, s. pl. yearling sheep that 

have been once shorn, 53/4. 
Shede, imp. s. part, 42/4 J sheede, v. 

to part, 110/2. 

Glossarial Index. 


Shedynge, s. spilling, 35/g, 70/46. 

Shefe, s. sheaf, 28/6. 

Sheldbrede, s. shield-board, 2/23 ; 3/4, 

25. See note to 3/i. And see 

Sheldbredth, s. the same as sheldbrede, 

2/17, 23. The form bredth is corrupt, 

by confusion of brede ( = breadth) 

with brede ( = board). 
Sheparde, j. shepherd, I8/24. 
Shepe-flekes, s. pi. hurdles for sheep, 


Shepehoke, s. sheep-hook, 41/12. 

Sherde, s. a breach, 141/36. 

Shere, v. to reap, 26/2, 146/85 ; shorne, 
pp. 26/ 3 . 

Sherers, s. pi. reapers, 27/3 > sheep- 
shearers, 52/i. 

Sheres, s. pi. shears, 41/12. 

Shertes, s. pi. shirts, H6/45. 

Sheryffe, s. sheriff, 1 48/40. 

Shete, s. a sheet, 122/15. 

Shethe, s. plough-sheath, 2/23, 3/29. 

. See note to 3/l, and see Ploughe- 

Sheydes, s. pi. partings, 44/17. «£* 

Shifted, pp. moved, Hl/43. 

Shoke, v. to place sheaves together in 
rows, to shock, 31/2. 

Sholynges, s. pi. shovellings, i.e. road- 
scrapings, 17 /'30. See note to I6/29- 

Shorte-pasturned, pp. having a short 

pastern, 75/2. 
Shote, s. shot, 151/20. 
Shotes, s. pi. (put for Slotes), 15/8. See 

Shotte, pp. shot up, grown, 21/19. 
Shouell, s. shovel, 5/33, 17/ 14. 
Shough, s. shock, rough hair on a 

horse's foot, 114/3. 
Showed, //. shoed, 142/6. 
Showynge, s. shoeing, IO9/4. 
Shoyng-home, s. shoe-horn, 142/i. 
Shrede, v. to cut off the smaller branches 

of a tree, 132/1 ; shred, //. having 

the smaller branches cut off, 133/2. 
Shuld, pt. s. would, 128/34. 
Side, s. sickle, 27/14 ; syckle, 28/4. 
Sith, s. scythe, 23/15. 
Skal, s. a scall or scab, 94/4. 
Skeyggs, s. pi. rough oats, note to 

I4/15. Doubtless so called from the 

long awns ; cf. Icel. skegg, a beard, 

Dan. skjceg, a beard, barb, awn. Cf. 

E. shaggy. 

Skorfe, s. scurf, 11 6/2. - 

Skyppes, baskets, I66/21. Usually 

Slake, v. to extinguish, 1 69/14. 

Slaue, v. to bend down, 133/15 (where 
it seems to mean tear by breaking 
down) ; to bend, 133/6 ; to slant, 
127/15, 32. Cf. "I slyue downe, I 
fall downe sodaynly ; Palsgrave. 
See below. 

Slauynges, s. pi. slips, scions, 130/5- 
Cf. slive, a slip, slive, to slice, slift, a 
scion of a plant for propagation, not 
cut, but pulled off at a joint ; Wright. 
" I slyue a floure from his braunche 
or stalke ; " Palsgrave. 

Slecketh, pr. s. extinguishes, 169/ 13. 
See Slake. 

Sleues, s. pi. sleeves (but in what sense 
is uncertain), 5/6. 

Slote, s. rod, thin piece of wood, cross- 
piece of a harrow, 15/n. A slot or 
slote is, properly, a thin flat bar. See 
Ray, Gloss. B. 15. See below. 

Slote, s. slit ? (apparently the same as 
slyt'xn. 3/17), 4/15. The usual sense 
of slot is ■ bar.' See above. 

Sloted, pp. furnished with slotes or 
bars, 15/24. 

Slote-wedges, s. pi. wedges fixed in the 
slote, 4/14. See Slote (= slit?). 

Small, s. small part, calf of the leg, 

Smockes, j. //. women's shifts, H6/45. 

Socle, imp. s. suckle, cause to suckle, 
38/4 j gi ye suck, 146/io. 

Socket, s. socket, fitted end, 3/47 ; 
means of fastening on, 21/8. 

Sodeinly, adv. suddenly, 2/24. 

Soke, v. suck, 2/13. 

Somer, s. rail or support, 0/22. Cf. 
Bressomer; also " somer s, the rails 
of a cart ;" Wright. See sumpter in 
my Etym. Diet. 

Sommersetshyre, Somersetshire, 2/9. 

Sonne, s. sun, 9/5 ; spelt son, H6/54. 

Soo, conj. so, provided that, 43/4- 

Sophy sty callye, adv. sophistically, am- 
biguously, 68/46. 

Sorance, s. sore, injury, disease, 6/29, 
89/i ; soraunce, 80/ 1, 119/1. 

Sought, s. 07/13. See Longe soughte. 

Souketh, pr. s. sucks, 39/i 1 . 

Souper, s. supper, 146/12. 

Souse, s. pickle, brine, I2I/15. 

So wen, pp. sown, 12/33, 35 ; Hl/42. 

Sowes, s. pi. sows, 121/9. 


Glossarial Index. 

Spade-grafife, s. the depth to which a 

spade will dig, about a foot, 1 24/33. 
Spauen, s. spavin, a kind of lameness, 

IO6/1. Also, the place where spavin 

appears, 10 7/4. 
Spauen-place, s. place where a horse is 

subject to spavin, II8/3. 
Spere, s. spear, 142/2. 
Sperewort, s. spear-wort, a grass, 54/3. 

"Flamula is the herbe whiche we cal 

in englishe Sperewurte or Spergrasse;" 

Turner's Names of Herbes. It is the 

lesser spear-wort, Ranunculus Flam- 

mula, as the greater spear-wort, or 

Ranunculus Lingua, is of larger 

growth. See Speerworty in Pegge, 

Gloss. B. 6. 
Spinner, s. a spider, note to 54/22. (In 

Splent, s. disease in a horse's leg, 96/i; 

Splente, imp. s. furnish with splents or 

laths, 122/9. See below. 
Splentes, s. pi. laths, 122/io. 
Spokes, s. pi. spokes of a wheel, 5/9. 
Spon, //. spun, 14 6/42. 
Spores, s. pi. spurs, 142/2. 
Sporte, s. sport, 153/i8. 
Sprede, v. spread, IO/38. 
Sprot-barley, s. sprout-barley, a kind of 

barley, 13/ 1 9. 
Sprutteth, v. sprouteth, 13/38. 
Sprynge, s. young wood, shoots, 126/l I; 

135/4, 7, 27. 
Spyndel, s. spindle, 103/5. 
Spyres, s. pi. shoots, sprigs, 20/i2. See 

note to P. Plowman, C. xiii. 180. 
Squecke, s. a disease of turkeys, note to 

Stacke, s. stack, 131/n. 
Staffe, s. a staff, stick, 41/9 ; handle, 

Staffe-hokes, s. pi. staff-hooks ; sharp 

hooks fastened to long handles to cut 

peas and beans, and trim hedges, 29/3. 
Stare, v. to stand on end, bristle up, 

56/i 1, 98/4, HI/3- 
Starkely, adv. stiffly, with difficulty, 

65/ 3 . 
Staues, s. pi. staves, bars, rails, 70/45, 

I4I/48; 'rough staves,' 3/5, 35. 

See note to 3/i. 
Staunche, v. to staunch, stop, 58/32. 
Staye, s. support, 3/41. 
Steeled, pp. steeled, 2I/9. 
Steke, imp. s. shut, fasten, 40/14, 

I65/48 ; v. I67/34. 

Stele, s. handle, 24/i8. A. S. stel. 
Stere, v. stir, I6/24. 
Sterte, s. stalk, 20/23. Cf. start = tail. 
Steryngtyme, s. time for stirring, I6/26. 
Stilt, s. the right-hand handle of a 

plough, 3/4. See note to 3/i. 
Stocke, s. stock, stem, 1 36/19. 
Stocke-heed, s. head or top of the 

stock, 138/26. 
Stole, s. stool, 122/17. 
Stooles, s. pi. stools ; but, apparently, 

part of the gear of a plough, 5/44. 
Stoupe, v. to stoop, 21/26; to obey, 

Stranguellyon, s. strangury, retention of 

urine, 88/1. "Stranguyllyon, a sick- 

nesse, cliauldepisse ;" Palsgrave. And 

see Markham, Husbandry, b. i. c. 30. 
Streyte, adv. close, 56/17. 
Stringe, s. string, 142/3. 
Strykes, s. pi. strikes, London bushels, 

12/8. (The measure varied.) 
Stryndes, s. pi. streaks, 55/2. 
Stryng-halte, s. string-halt, a twitching 

lameness in horses, 10 8/1. 
Stubbes, s. pi. old roots, or stumps, 

Sturdy, s. 'the turn,' i.e. giddiness, 

note to 62 (rubric). 
Sturred, pp. stirred, 17/8, Ul/42. 
Sturrynge, s. stirring, 4/40. 
Styffe-docked, pp. having a stiff stumpy 

part of the tail, 74/2. 
Styffe-eared, pp. having stiff ears, 76/i. 
Stylkynges, s. pi. some part of harness 

for oxen, 5/4. 
Styred, pp. stirred, 146/ioS. 
Subleuate, lifted up, I60/43. 
Suet, s. suet, 44/7. 
Swarth, adj. grassy, note to sect. 8 (ch. 

8, 1. 30). 
Swathe, s. a row of cut grass, 23/i6. 
Sweate, v. give out moisture, as cut 

grass, 23/13. 
Swyneherde, j. swineherd, 123/ 16. 
Swyngletre, the bar that swings at the 

heels of the horse when drawing a 

harrow, 15/42 ; swyngle-trees, pi. 

swinging bars to which traces are 

fixed, 5/25. 
Syde, adj. long, trailing, I5I/14. A.S- 

sid, long. 
Syde-longe all, close beside, 38/7. 
Syde-tailed, pp. longtailed, 77/3- See 

Syde- wedges, s. pi. side-wedges (at the 

side of the coulter), 4/22. 

Glossarial Index. 


Sye, imp. s. strain (milk), 14 6/ 10. "I 
sye mylke, or dense, ie coulle du 
laict. This term is to muche north- 
erne ;" Palsgrave. 

Symbalo, for symbolo, ail. s. in the 
creed, I6I/3. 

Symylytude, s. likeness, I6O/9. 

Synagoges, s. pi. synagogues, 1 60/21. 

Synge, v. sing (as land), IO/19. 

Syre, s. sire (said of a horse), 68/75. 

Sythe, conj. since, 157/41. 

Syues, s. pi. sieves, 36/3. 

Syxte, adj. num. sixth, 70/3. 

Tables, s. pi. tablets, Hl/31. 

Take, pr. s. subj. lay firm hold of, 

Tancardes, s. pi. tankards, 141/68. 
Tarre, s. tar, 47/ 16. See Terre. 
Tawed,//, dressed, 146 42. 
Tayle, s. plough-tail, 3/ 18. 
Tedde, v. to spread or turn hay, 25, 

rubric; tedded, pp. 25/2. "I teede 

hey, I toume it afore it is made in 

cockes ; " Palsgrave. 
Teddered, //. tethered, fastened, 6/17. 
Teddynge, s. spreading, 25 4. 
Tedure, s. tether, 147/31. 
Tedure, v. to tether, H8/14. 
Tell, v. count, 30/5. 
Temper, s. adjustment, 4 '46 ; tempre, 

Tempered, //. adjusted, set, 2/30, 4/3 ; 

worked together (as clay), 122/26. 
Temporal, adj. worldly, 154/17. 
Tenaunte, s. tenant, 123/31. 
Tenaunte, s. tenon, 139/6. 
Tennes-balles, s. pi. tennis balls, 9I/4. 
Terre, s. tar, 4I/4. 

Terre, s. tare, tares, 20/36 ; ter, 20/4. 
Terre-boxe, s. tar- box, 41/io. 
Thacke, s. thatch, 27/20. ** TJiacke of 

a house, chaume ; " Palsgrave. 
Thacke, v. thatch, 27/IO. 
Thacking, s. thatching, 27/24. 
Thanke, s. thanks, I69/23. 
There-as, conj. where, 33/13, *5/9t 

Theyues, s. pi. ewes of the first year, 

53/4. u Theave, a ewe of a year old 

(Essex) ; a sheep of three years old 

(North) ;" Wright. SeetAaive.tAeave, 

in Index to Old Country Words, ed. 

J. Britten (E.D.S.). 
Thimble, s. thimble, 142/5. 

Thistyls, s. pi. thistles, 20 '3 ; thistyll, s. 
20 6. 

Thopinion, the opinion, 12/37. 

Thorowe, adv. through, 23/ 16, 44/io, 

Threde, s. thread, 142/5. 

Thresshe, pr. s. subj. 2. p. thresh, 35/2 ; 
thresshen, pp. 13/40 ; thresshed, pp. 

Throughe, adj. passing through, con- 
tinuous, 96/3. 

Thryfte, s. thrift, thriving, 129/8. 

Thyn-cressed, pp. thin in the crest, 
78/2. The crest is ' the rising part of 
a horse's neck ; ' Wright. 

Tinded, pp. furnished with tines, 15/24. 
See Tyndes. 

To, adv. too, 2/24, 2/29, 43/5, H8/34, 

To, prep, in going to, H6/16. 

To, frequently inserted in imperative 
clauses ; thus, to fel, i.e. remember 
to fell, 134/15 ; to sell, be sure to 
sell, 134/iS ; &c. 

Togwith, or Togewith, j. part of the 
draught apparatus of a plough or 
harrow, to which the swingle-tree was 
attached, 5 25, 15/43. Lit. " tug- 
withe;" cf. "tug-iron, an iron on 
the shafts of a waggon to hitch the 
traces to ; " Wright. 

Tolle, s. toll, 146/i7. 

Tomblynge, s. tumbling, IO2/5. 

Toppes, s. tops, 31/i2. 

Tothe, v. furnish with teeth, 24/7- 

Toure, s. tower, 1 46/104. 

Towels, s. pi. towels, 146/45. 

Towne-syde. s. farm-yard side, 10/n. 

Trade, v. to drag on the ground, 141 49. 

Tree, s. piece of wood, 3/9 ; tre, 3. 11. 

Trenche, s. trench, 124/30. 

Tresses, s. pi. traces (for drawing a 
plough), 0/25, 15,42. 

Trouse, s. the trimmings of a hedge, 
38/3, 126 /9- "Trouse, to trim 
hedgings " ; Wright. 

Tryanglewise, adj. in the form of a 
triangle, 4 34. 

Tucke, v. to tuck up short, I5I/14. 

Tuell, s. fundament (of a horse), 85/4. 

Tuftes, s. pi. tufts, 76/3. 

Tume, j. a disease of cattle, giddiness, 

Twon, //. twined, 25/32. 

Twyche, v. to twitch, IO8/2. 

Twyrle, v. turn round ; twyrle upon, 
i.e. turn round by pressing upon, 55/1. 

1 66 

Glossarial Index. 

Twyse, adv. twice, 147/28. 

Twytches, s. pi. jerks, I0/21. 

Tyckes, s. pi. ticks, small insects, 

Tyndes, s. pi. tines, teeth, 15/26. 
Tyne, v. to shut, lil/49. A.S. tynan. 
Tythes, s. pi. tithes, 30/13. 

Vaine, s. vein, 50/n ; vaines, pi. 70/26. 

Valentynes daye, Feb. 14, 137/4- 

Vermynne, s. vermin (said of noxious 
beasts), H6/32. 

Viues, s. pi. " Certain e kirnels growing 
under the horsses eare " (Topsell, 
1607, p. 360), 91/i. " Vyves, a 
disease that an horse hath, auiues ;" 
Palsgrave. See Avives in Cotgrave. 

Vncomely, adj. unsuitable, prol. 13. 

Vnconuenient, adj. unsuitable, unbe- 
coming, unfit, 151/i6, 154/i6. 

Vnderstande, //. understood, 1 56/27. 

Vnder-wodde, s. underwood, 131/2. 

Vndouted, adv. doubtless, 146/48. 

Vngiue, v. to give out the damp, 25/ 16. 

Vnhappy, adj. unhappy, unfortunate, 

Vpholdyng, s. maintaining in repair, 

Vppe, adj. up, risen, 149/8. 

Vppe, adv. up, 13/8. 

Vpwarde, adv. upward, 16/ 17. 

\se,pr. pi. are accustomed, 21/29. 

Vtter, adj. compar. outer, 138/i2. 

Vttermoste, adj. superl. most outward, 

Waincloutes, s. pi. pieces of iron for 
strengthening the axle-tree of a wag- 
gon, 5/19. On clouts, see J. E. T. 
Rogers, Hist, of Agriculture, i. 546. 

Wained, pp. weaned, 130/14. 

Waked,//, awake, 146/i. 

Wallettes, s. pi. wallets, Hl/69. 

Walnutshell, s. walnut-shell, 94/4. 

Walnuttes, s. pi. walnuts, 136/4, I4O/4. 

Want, v. to lack, 79/12 ; wante, pr. s. 
subj. be lacking, I64/27. 

Warde, s. management ; harde of 
warde, harde to manage, 79/4. 

Wardens, s. pi. large baking pears, 

Warden-tree, s. a pear-tree, bearing 
large baking pears, 1 37/3- 

Ward ropes, s. pi. wardrobes, 151/2. 

Ware, s. ware, merchandise, bargain, 

Ware, v. to spend, 1 23/23. See Gloss. 
B. 15 (E. D. S.), p. 72 ; Gloss. B. 
2, p. 42. 

Warke, s. work, 6/9, 21/26; warkes, 
pi. prol. 22, 143/1 1. 

Warry-bredes, s. pi. worms just under 
the skin, 63/ 1. " Wary-breeds, or 
Warnel-worms , worms on the backs 
of cattle within their skin ; " Bailey's 
Diet. vol. i. ed. 1735. Cf. " Warbot, 
a worme, escarbot ; " Palsgrave. 

Wartes, s. pi. warts, II8/2. 

Washen,//. washed, 122/ic ; wasshen, 


Waspes, s. pi. wasps, 122/47. 

Water-bowes, s. pi. smaller boughs or 
shoots of a tree (probably from their 
containing much sap), 129/17. 

Water-forowed, pp. drained by making 
furrows, 13/6, 33/5- 

Wauerynge, pres. part, wavering, 

Waxen, pp. grown, 1 56/36. 

Wayne, s. a wain, waggon, 5/6. 

Wayne, v. wean, 39/5. 

Wayne-rope, s. a cart-rope, 5/6. 

Wayters, s. pi. waiters, 152/1 1. 

Weare, v. exhaust, 14/ 16. 

Weate, s. wet, moisture, 124/22. 

Wedders, s. pi. wether-sheep, 53/5- 

Wede, v. weed, 21/2. 

Wedes, weeds, H6/37. 

Wedynge-hoke, s. weeding-hook, 2I/7. 

Weike, adj. weak, 53/9. I eel. veikr. 

Were, pt. s. subj. would be, 121/2. 

Weter, adj. compar. wetter, H/3. 

Wether, weather, I8/29. 

Wethy, s. a willow, 126/3, 130/5, 

Wethy-wode, s. withy-wood, willow- 
wood, 24/8. [Not osier.] 

Weyke, adv. weak, 66/10. See Weike. 

What-someuer, whatsoever, I68/10. 

Whelpe, s. a young dog, 41/17. 

Whereas, adv. where that, where, 6/15. 

Whether, adj. which of the two, 40/20, 

Why ted, pp. ( = thwited), cut, whittled 
down into shape, 5/25. Cf. whittle 
= thwiitle, a knife ; from thwite, to 

Whyte-thorne, s. whitethorn, 124/4, 
126/4, 137/12. 

Whyte wheate, s. a kind of wheat, 

Wiedes, s. pi. weeds, I6/25. 

Winowed, //. winnowed, H6/56. 

Glossarial Index. 


Winter-come, s. winter-corn (such as 

wheat or rye), 8/13. 
Withall, with it, 146/15. 
Withe, s. withy, I6/13 ; withee, a twig 

of willow, 24/15. $" Togwith and 

Withed, pp. bound, wound, I0/41. 
Wodde, wood, 3/39 j woddes, //. trees, 

Wode euyll, s. wood-evil ; a disease in 

sheep, 0O/2. 
Wolde, //. s. and pi. ought to (lit. 

wouldj, 3/31 ; should, ought, 15 '35 ; 

must, I0/45 ; should, 21/20, I22/36, 

140 6. 
Woll, ' s. wool, 42/3, 146/77. 
Woll-wynder, s. wool-winder, 52/7. 
Wonders, adv. wondrously, prol. 24. 

(This afterwards became an adj., and 

was turned into the Mod. E. won- 
drous.) See below. 
Wonders, adj. wonderful, ll/ll. 
Wormes, s. pi. worms, 103/1. 
Wouen, pp. woven, H6/43. 
Wounden, //. wound, 1 46/43. 
Wowed, pp. wooed, 146/109. 
Wrapped, pp. (probably) warped, 

drawn out into a warp, 1 46/43. Spelt 

warped in ed. 1 598. 
Wrethynge-temes, s. pi. part of the 

harness for oxen, 5/4. To wrdhe is 

to twist ; a team is ' an ox-chain, 

passing from yoke to yoke ; ' E. D. 

S. Gloss. B. 2, p. 40. 
Wryncles, s. pi. wrinkles, IOO/7. 
Wrynge, v. to wring, 146 85. 
Wrynkeled, pp. wrinkled, 34 43. 

Wrythen, //. wreathed, twisted, Sl/15, 

Wyddre, v. wither, 21/17, 31/17 ; 
wyddred, pp. 25/6. 

Wyddrynge, s. withering, 23 ( /8. 

Wydes, j. pi. the name of a kind of 
apple, 130/4. 

Wyght, adj. active, swift, 76/4. 

Wymble, s. an auger, 24/8. 

Wyndgalles, s. pi. wind-galls, swellings 
or blisters above a horse's fetlock, 
99/i. " Windgalls are little blebs or 
soft swellings on each side of the 
fetlock ; " G. Markham, Husbandry, 
b. i. c. 57. 

Wyndrowes, s. pi. rows of grass in hay- 
making, 25/n. 

Yeane, v. produce (as a ewe), 37/26. 

Yelde, v. yield, IO/9. 

Yere, s. pi. years, 67/9. 

Ylle, adj. ill bad, 54/u. 

Yokes, s. pi. frames of wood to couple 

oxen for drawing, 5/3. 
Yomen, s. pi. keepers, I51/i ; yomenne, 

yeomen, 152/ 11 ; yomenne or yomen, 

pawns (in chess), prol. 20, prol. 30. 
Yorke, York, 17/22. 
Yorkeshyre, Yorkshire, 2/26. 
Yren, s. iron, 2/2, 3/49 ; yrens, //. 

Yren-gray, adj. iron-gray, 68/75. 
Ysaye, Isaiah, I64/3. 
Yues, s. pi. ivies, 132/4. 

Zelcester = Leicester, 
2/9, 27/17. 

i.e. Ilchester, 

Stephen Austin and Sons, Printers, Hertford. 


Turner, William 


The names of herbes 




& Meciictl